Accepted Manuscripts

Florent Lacombe and Yoann Mery
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4037960
This article focuses on Combustion Instabilities (CI) driven by entropy fluctuations which is of great importance in practical devices. A simplified geometry is introduced. It keeps the essential features of an aeronautical combustion chamber (swirler, dilution holes, outlet nozzle) while it is simplified sufficiently to ease the analysis (rectangular vane, one row of holes of the same diameter, no diffuser at the inlet of the chamber, circular nozzle at the outlet). A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is carried out on this geometry and the limit cycle of a strong CI involving the convection of an entropy spot is obtained. The behavior of the instability is analyzed using phenomenological description and classical signal analysis. One shows that the system can be better described by considering two reacting zones: a rich mainly premixed flame is located downstream of the swirler and an overall lean diffusion flame is stabilized next to the dilution holes. In a second step, Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) is used to visualize, analyze and model the complex phasing between the different processes affecting the reacting zones. Using these data, a 0D modeling of the premixed flame and of the diffusion flame is proposed. These models provides an extended understanding of the combustion process in an aeronautical combustor and could be used or adapted to address mixed acoustic-entropy CI in an acoustic code.
TOPICS: Combustion, Acoustics, Entropy, Modeling, Combustion chambers, Large eddy simulation, Diffusion flames, Nozzles, Flames, Geometry, Signals, Fluctuations (Physics), Limit cycles, Diffusers, Convection
Behdad Ariatabar, Rainer Koch and Hans-Jörg Bauer
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4037961
The concept of the novel Short Helical Combustor (SHC) was investigated in our previous work [1, 2]. Based on the insight gained from these previous investigations, we propose a generic design improvement to address the tremendous loss of initial angular momentum as well as inhomogeneous flow and temperature field at the outlet of the SHC. In the present paper, the main features of this design are introduced. It is shown that a three-dimensional shaping of the sidewalls, the dome, and the liners can effectively counteract the suboptimal interaction of the swirl flames with these surrounding walls. As a result, the flow at the outlet of the combustor features a high angular momentum and exhibits a uniform flow angle and temperature field. The insight gained from these generic investigations, and the resulting design optimization provides a useful framework for further industrial optimization of the SHC.
TOPICS: Combustion chambers, Combustion systems, Flow control, Flow (Dynamics), Design, Optimization, Temperature, Angular momentum, Domes (Structural elements), Flames
Francesco Ippolito and Mauro Venturini
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4037962
This paper presents the development of a simulation tool for modeling the transient behavior of micro-CHP systems, equipped with both thermal and electric storage units and connected with both electric and district heating grid. The prime mover considered in this paper is an internal combustion reciprocating engine, which is currently the only well-established micro-CHP technology. Different users, characterized by different demands of electric and thermal energy, both in terms of absolute value and electric-to-thermal energy ratio, are analyzed in this paper. Both summer and winter hourly trends of electric and thermal energy demand are simulated by using literature data. The results present a comprehensive energy analysis of all scenarios on a daily basis, in terms of both user demand met and energy share among system components. The transient response of the prime mover and the thermal energy storage is also analyzed for the two scenarios with the lowest and highest daily energy demand, together with the trend over time of the state of charge of both thermal and electric energy storage.
TOPICS: Combined heat and power, Simulation models, Microgrids, Transients (Dynamics), Thermal energy, Simulation, Combustion, Central heating, Storage, Thermal energy storage, Piston engines, Energy storage, Modeling
Giuseppe Fabio Ceschini, Nicolo' Gatta, Mauro Venturini, Thomas Hubauer and Alin Murarasu
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4037963
Statistical parametric methodologies are widely employed in the analysis of time series of gas turbine sensor readings. Among parametric techniques, the k-s methodology demonstrates its effectiveness in the analysis of stationary time series. Furthermore, the simplicity and the clarity of this approach justify its direct application to industry. On the other hand, the k-s methodology usually proves to be unable to adapt to dynamic time series, since it identifies observations in a transient as outliers. As this limitation is caused by the nature of the methodology itself, two improved approaches are considered in this paper in addition to the standard k-s methodology. The two proposed methodologies maintain the same rejection rule of the standard k-s methodology, but differ in the portions of the time series from which statistical parameters (mean and standard deviation) are inferred. The first approach performs statistical inference by considering all observations prior to the current one, which are assumed reliable, plus a forward window containing a specified number of future observations. The second approach proposed in this paper is based on a moving window scheme. Simulated data are used to tune the parameters of the proposed improved methodologies and to prove their effectiveness in adapting to dynamic time series. The moving window approach is found to be the best on simulated data. Therefore, the performance of the moving window approach is further assessed towards both different simulated scenarios and field data taken on a gas turbine.
TOPICS: Gas turbines, Optimization, Time series, Sensors, Transients (Dynamics)
Giuseppe Fabio Ceschini, Nicolo' Gatta, Mauro Venturini, Thomas Hubauer and Alin Murarasu
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4037964
Anomaly detection in sensor time series is a crucial aspect for raw data cleaning in gas turbine industry. In fact, a successful methodology for industrial applications should be also characterized by ease of implementation and operation. To this purpose, a comprehensive and straightforward approach for Detection, Classification and Integrated Diagnostics of Gas Turbine Sensors (named DCIDS) is proposed in this paper. The tool consists of two main algorithms, i.e. the Anomaly Detection Algorithm (ADA) and the Anomaly Classification Algorithm (ACA). The ADA identifies anomalies according to three different levels of filtering based on gross physics threshold application, inter-sensor statistical analysis (sensor voting) and single-sensor statistical analysis. Anomalies in the time series are identified by the ADA, together with their characteristics, which are analyzed by the ACA to perform their classification. Fault classes discriminate among anomalies according to their time correlation, magnitude and number of sensors in which an anomaly is contemporarily identified. Results of anomaly identification and classification can subsequently be used for sensor diagnostic purposes. The performance of the tool is assessed in this paper by analyzing two temperature time series with redundant sensors taken on a Siemens gas turbine in operation. The results show that the DICDS is able to identify and classify different types of anomalies. In particular, in the first dataset, two severely incoherent sensors are identified and their anomalies are correctly classified. In the second dataset, the DCIDS tool proves to be capable of identifying and classifying clustered spikes of different magnitudes.
TOPICS: Sensors, Gas turbines, Time series, Algorithms, Statistical analysis, Physics, Temperature, Filtration
Alessio Castorrini, Alessandro Corsini, Anthony Geoffrey Sheard and Franco Rispoli
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4037921
The concept of morphing geometry to control and stabilize the flow has been proposed and applied in several aeronautic and wind turbine applications. We studied the effect of a similar passive system applied on an axial fan blade, analysing potential benefits and disadvantages associated to the passive coupling between fluid and structure dynamics. The present work completes a previous study made at the section level, giving a view also on the three-dimensional effects. We use the numerical computation to simulate the system, which defines a complex fluid-structure interaction problem. In order to do that, an in-house finite element solver, already used in the previous study, is applied to solve the coupled dynamics.
TOPICS: Testing, Blades, Dynamics (Mechanics), Flow (Dynamics), Fluids, Finite element analysis, Computation, Geometry, Wind turbines, Fluid structure interaction
Bok Seong Choe, Jeonkook Lee, Doyoung Jeon and Yong-Bok Lee
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4037872
This study presents the dynamic motion of a ball bearing cage submerged in a cryogenic fluid under high-speed conditions. The dynamic motion of the cage has been studied as a function of the race land-cage and ball-cage pocket clearances for different inner race rotation speeds under light load conditions. In addition, this study conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis using commercial software to analyze the fluid dynamic forces on the cage. The hydraulic force obtained from the CFD analysis was coded in commercial ball bearing analysis software as a function of the eccentricity ratio and rotation speed of the cage. Finally, the dynamic motion of the ball bearing cage considering the effects of fluid dynamic forces has been studied. The results include the cage whirling amplitude, fluctuation of cage whirling speed, and cage wear for various cage clearances and rotation speeds. The cage whirling amplitude decreases as the outer guidance clearance decreases, and it decreases as the rotation speed increases up to 11,000 rpm because of the increasing hydrodynamic force of the liquid nitrogen (LN2). However, the probability density function (PDF) curves indicate that an increase in the rotor speed increases the standard deviation in the cage whirling frequency. The wear loss of the cage was greatest for the largest race land-cage and the smallest ball-cage pocket clearances. Consequently, the analysis results for various operating conditions (inner race rotation speeds, cage clearances, traction coefficients, etc.) are in good agreement with the reference results.
TOPICS: Density, Dynamics (Mechanics), Rotation, Wear, Fluids, Stress, Fluid-dynamic forces, Clearances (Engineering), Computational fluid dynamics, Rotors, Ball bearings, Computer software, Nitrogen, Probability, Traction, Whirls
Klaus Brun, Rainer Kurz and Sarah Simons
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4034314
Pressure pulsations into a centrifugal compressor can move its operating point into surge. This is concerning in pipeline stations where centrifugal compressors operate in series/parallel with reciprocating compressors. Sparks (1983), Kurz et al., (2006), and Brun et al., (2014) provided predictions on the impact of periodic pressure pulsation on the behavior of a centrifugal compressor. This interaction is known as the “Compressor Dynamic Response” (CDR) theory. Although the CDR describes the impact of the nearby piping system on the compressor surge and pulsation amplification, it has limited usefulness as a quantitative analysis tool, due to the lack of prediction tools and test data for comparison. Testing of compressor mixed operation was performed in an air loop to quantify the impact of periodic pressure pulsation from a reciprocating compressor on the surge margin of a centrifugal compressor. This data was utilized to validate predictions from Sparks' CDR theory and Brun's numerical approach. A 50 hp single-stage, double-acting reciprocating compressor provided inlet pulsations into a two-stage 700 hp centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed over a range of pulsation excitation amplitudes, frequencies, and pipe geometry variations to determine the impact of piping impedance and resonance responses. Results provided clear evidence that pulsations can reduce the surge margin of centrifugal compressors and that geometry of the piping system immediately upstream and downstream of a centrifugal compressor will have an impact on the surge margin reduction. Surge margin reductions of <30% were observed for high centrifugal compressor inlet suction pulsation.
TOPICS: Compressors, Surges, Pressure, Pipes, Geometry, Piping systems, Testing, Dynamic response, Suction, Pipelines, Excitation, Resonance
shilpi agarwal, Puneet Rana and B. S. Bhadauria
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4028491
In this paper, we study the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium on the linear thermal instability in a horizontal layer of a Newtonian nanofluid. The nanofluid layer incorporates the effect of Brownian motion along with thermophoresis. A two-temperature model has been used for the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium among the particle and fluid phases. The linear stability is based on normal mode technique and for nonlinear analysis, a minimal representation of the truncated Fourier series analysis involving only two terms has been used. We observe that for linear instability, the value of Rayleigh number can be increased by a substantial amount on considering a bottom heavy suspension of nano particles. The effect of various parameters on Rayleigh number has been presented graphically. A weak nonlinear theory based on the truncated representation of Fourier series method has been used to find the concentration and the thermal Nusselt numbers. The behavior of the concentration and thermal Nusselt numbers is also investigated by solving the finite amplitude equations using a numerical method.
TOPICS: Equilibrium (Physics), Nanofluids, Rayleigh-Benard convection, Fourier series, Rayleigh number, Nanoparticles, Numerical analysis, Stability, Temperature, Fluids, Particulate matter, Brownian motion
Corey E. Clifford and Mark Kimber
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4028492
Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder is of importance in a large number of applications. Although the topic has a rich history for free cylinders, maximizing the free convective cooling through the introduction of sidewalls and creation of a chimney effect is considerably less studied. In this study, a numerical model of a heated horizontal cylinder confined between two, vertical adiabatic walls is employed to evaluate the natural convective heat transfer. Two different treatments of the cylinder surface are investigated: constant temperature (isothermal) and constant surface heat flux (isoflux). To quantify the effect of wall distance on the effective heat transfer from the cylinder surface, 18 different confinement ratios are selected in varying increments from 1.125 to 18.0. All of these geometrical configurations are evaluated at seven distinct Rayleigh numbers ranging from 102 to 105. Maximum values of the surface-averaged Nusselt number are observed at an optimum confinement ratio for each analyzed Rayleigh number. Relative to the pseudo-unconfined cylinder at the largest confinement ratio, a 74.2% improvement in the heat transfer from an isothermal cylinder surface is observed at the optimum wall spacing for the highest analyzed Rayleigh number. An analogous improvement of 60.9% is determined for the same conditions with a constant heat flux surface. Several correlations are proposed to evaluate the optimal confinement ratio and the effective rate of heat transfer at that optimal confinement level for both thermal boundary conditions. One of the main application targets for this work is spent nuclear fuel, which after removal from the reactor core is placed in wet storage and then later transferred to cylindrical dry storage canisters. In light of enhanced safety, many are proposing to decrease the amount of time the fuel spends in wet storage conditions. The current study helps to establish a fundamental understanding of the buoyancy-induced flows around these dry cask storage canisters to address the anticipated needs from an accelerated fuel transfer program.
TOPICS: Heat, Natural convection, Cylinders, Storage, Heat transfer, Rayleigh number, Heat flux, Fuels, Safety, Computer simulation, Cooling, Temperature, Flow (Dynamics), Buoyancy, Spent nuclear fuels, Convection, Boundary-value problems

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