Accepted Manuscripts

Tao Ren, Michael F. Modest and Somesh Roy
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038153
Radiative heat transfer is studied numerically for reacting swirling flow in an industrial gas turbine burner operating at a pressure of 15 bar. The reacting field characteristics are computed by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations using the k-epsilon model with the partially stirred reactor (PaSR) combustion model. The GRI-Mech 2.11 mechanism, which includes nitrogen chemistry, is used to demonstrate the the ability of reducing NOx emissions of the combustion system. A Photon Monte Carlo (PMC) method coupled with a line-by-line spectral model is employed to accurately account for the radiation effects. Optically thin and PMC-gray models are also employed to show the differences between the simplest radiative calculation models and the most accurate radiative calculation model, i.e., PMC-LBL, for the gas turbine burner. It was found that radiation does not significantly alter the temperature level as well as CO2 and H2O concentrations. However, it has significant impacts on the NOx levels at downstream locations.
TOPICS: Radiative heat transfer, Simulation, Industrial gases, High pressure (Physics), Combustion chambers, Turbines, Nitrogen oxides, Emissions, Carbon dioxide, Chemistry, Nitrogen, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, Swirling flow, Water, Combustion systems, Gas turbines, Radiation effects, Pressure, Temperature, Photons, Combustion, Radiation (Physics)
Craig R. Nolen and Melissa Poerner
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038151
The distribution of water in the diffuser of a wet gas compressor is not well understood. Measurements of water film thickness across the diffuser surface would improve the understanding of two-phase flow phenomena in wet gas compressors. Electromagnetic probes were designed in order to measure water film thickness in the diffuser of a SwRI-designed wet gas compressor. The probes consisted of two electrode foils plated on a thin insulating substrate, allowing them to be bonded in place without drilling through the diffuser. An AC signal was passed between the electrodes, and the voltage across a resistor in series with the electrodes was recorded. As the water level covering the electrodes increased, the recorded voltage increased. A method of calibrating the probes was developed and used prior to installation in the diffuser. Testing showed the probes to be effective at detecting the presence of water in the diffuser and indicating the general water level. Improvements in probe design, calibration, and installation are needed to provide more precise water film thickness data.
TOPICS: Gas compressors, Diffusers, Design, Testing, Calibration, Film thickness, Probes, Water, Electrodes, Two-phase flow, Drilling, Water distribution, Resistors, Signals
Luigi Carassale and Mirko Maurici
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038154
The component mode synthesis based on the Craig-Bampton method has two strong limitations that appear when the number of the interface degrees of freedom is large. First, the reduced-order model obtained is overweighed by many unnecessary degrees of freedom. Second, the reduction step may become extremely time consuming. Several interface reduction techniques addressed successfully the former problem, while the latter remains open. In this paper we address this latter problem through a simple interface-reduction technique based on an a-priory choice of the interface modes. An efficient representation of the interface displacement field is achieved adopting a set of orthogonal basis functions determined by the interface geometry. The proposed method is compared with other existing interface reduction methods on a case study regarding a rotor blade of an axial compressor.
TOPICS: Compressors, Degrees of freedom, Rotors, Disks, Blades, Displacement, Geometry, Polynomials
Georg A. Mensah, Luca Magri and Jonas P. Moeck
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038156
Thermoacoustic instabilities are a major threat for modern gas turbines. Frequency-domain based stability methods, such as network models and Helmholtz solvers, are common design tools because they are fast compared to compressible CFD computations. Frequency-domain approaches result in an eigenvalue problem, which is nonlinear with respect to the eigenvalue. . Thus, the influence of the relevant parameters on mode stability is only given implicitly. Small changes in some model parameters, which are obtained by experiments with some uncertainty, may have a great impact on stability. The assessment of how parameter uncertainties propagate to system stability is therefore crucial. This question is addressed by uncertainty quantification. A common strategy for uncertainty quantification in thermoacoustics is risk factor analysis. It quantifies the uncertainty of a set of parameters in terms of the probability of a mode to become unstable. A new and fast way to obtain algebraic parameter models in order to tackle the implicit nature of the eigenfrequency problem is using adjoint perturbation theory. This paper aims to further utilize adjoint methods for the quantification of uncertainties. This analytical method avoids the usual random Monte Carlo simulations, making it particularly attractive for industrial purposes. Using network models and the open-source Helmholtz solver PyHoltz it is also discussed how to apply the method with standard modeling techniques. The theory is exemplified based on a simple ducted flame and a combustor of EM2C laboratory for which experimental validation is available.
TOPICS: Stability, Uncertainty quantification, Uncertainty, Eigenvalues, Network models, Perturbation theory, Probability, Thermoacoustics, Flames, Algebra, Simulation, Combustion chambers, Computational fluid dynamics, Design, Engineering simulation, Gas turbines, Modeling, Computation, Information technology risk
Review Article  
David A. Shifler
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038037
It has been conjectured that if sulfur in fuel is removed, engine materials will cease to experience attack from hot corrosion, since this sulfur has been viewed as the primary cause of hot corrosion and sulfidation. Historically, hot corrosion has been defined as an accelerated degradation process that generally involves deposition of corrosive species (e.g., sulfates) from the surrounding environment (e.g., combustion gas) onto the surface of hot components, resulting in destruction of the protective oxide scale. Most papers in the literature, since the 1970s, consider sodium sulfate salt as the single specie contributing to hot corrosion. Recent Navy standards for Navy F-76 and similar fuels have dropped the sulfur content down to 15 parts per million (ppm). Most observers believe that the removal of sulfur will end hot corrosion events in the Fleet. However, the deposit chemistry influencing hot corrosion is known to be much more complex consisting of multiple sulfates and silicates. Sulfur species may still enter the combustion chamber via ship's air intake, which may include seawater entrained in the air. In addition to sodium sulfate, seawater contains magnesium, calcium and potassium salts, and atmospheric contaminants that may contribute to hot corrosion. This paper will cover some of the revised understanding of hot corrosion and consider other possible contaminants that could further complicate a full understanding of hot corrosion.
TOPICS: Corrosion, Sulfur, Seawater, Sodium, Navy, Fuels, Engines, Combustion gases, Combustion chambers, Potassium, Chemistry, Magnesium (Metal)
Luis San Andrés, Bonjin Koo and Makoto Hemmi
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038043
Literature shows that direct lubrication TPJBs exhibit unexpected shaft vibrations with a broadband low frequency range, albeit small in amplitude. Published industrial practice demonstrates the inlet lubrication type, a reduced supply flow rate causing film starvation, and the bearing discharge conditions (evacuated or end sealed) affect the onset, gravity, and persistency of the sub synchronous (SSV) hash motions. The paper presents a physical model to predict the performance of TPJBs with flow conditions ranging from over flooded to extreme starvation. Lubricant starvation occurs first on an unloaded pad, thus producing a (beneficial) reduction in drag power. As the supplied flowrate decreases further, fluid starvation moves towards the loaded pads and affects the film temperature and power loss, increases the journal eccentricity, and modifies the dynamic force coefficients of each tilting pad and thus the whole bearing. For a point mass rotor supported on a TPJB, the analysis produces eigenvalues and frequency response functions (FRFs). Predictions of rotordynamic performance follow for two TPJBs. Under increasingly poor lubricant flow conditions, the damping ratio for the rotor-bearing low frequency (SSV) modes decreases, thus producing an increase in the amplitude of the FRFs.A reduction in lubricant flow only exacerbates the phenomenon; starvation reaches the loaded pad to eventually cause the onset of low frequency (SSV) instability. The bearing analyzed showed similar behavior on a test bench. The predictions thus show a direct correlation between lubricant flow starvation and the onset of SSV.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Frequency response, Journal bearings, Lubricants, Bearings, Rotors, Lubrication, Temperature, Fluids, Drag (Fluid dynamics), Vibration, Eigenvalues, Damping, Gravity (Force)
Jahed Hossain, John Harrington, Wenping Wang, Jayanta Kapat, Steven Thorpe and Michael Maurer
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038023
Experiments to investigate the effect of varying jet hole diameter and jet spacing on heat transfer and pressure loss from jet array impingement on a curved target surface are reported. The jet plate configurations studied have varying hole diameters and geometric spacing for spatial tuning of the heat transfer behaviour. The configuration also includes a straight section downstream of the curved section, where the effect on heat transfer and pressure loss is also investigated. A steady-state measurement technique utilizing temperature sensitive paint (TSP) was used on the target surface to obtain local heat transfer coefficients. Pressure taps placed on the sidewall and jet plate of the channel were used to evaluate the flow distribution in the impingement channel. First row jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 50,000 to 160,000 are reported. Further tests were performed to evaluate several modifications to the impingement array. These involve blocking several downstream rows of jets, measuring the subsequent shifts in the pressure and heat transfer data, and then applying different turbulator designs in an attempt to recover the loss in the heat transfer while retaining favorable pressure loss. It was found that by using W shaped turbulators, the downstream surface average Nusselt number increases up to ~13% as compared with a smooth case using the same amount of coolant .The results suggest that by properly combining impingement and turbulators (in the post impingement section), higher heat transfer, lower flow rate, and lower pressure drop are simultaneously obtained, thus providing an optimal scenario.
TOPICS: Pressure, Flow (Dynamics), Temperature, Heat transfer, Reynolds number, Coolants, Jets, Pressure drop, Steady state, Heat transfer coefficients
Andrea Giusti, Epaminondas Mastorakos, Christoph Hassa, Johannes Heinze, Eggert Magens and Marco Zedda
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4038025
In this work a single sector lean burn model combustor operating in pilot only mode has been investigated using both experiments and computations with the main objective of analyzing the flame structure and soot formation at conditions relevant to aero-engine applications. Numerical simulations were performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach and the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) combustion model with detailed chemistry and a two-equation model for soot. The rig investigated in this work, called Big Optical Single Sector (BOSS) rig, allows to test real scale lean burn injectors. Experiments, performed at elevated pressure and temperature, corresponding to engine conditions at part load, include OH-PLIF and PDA and have been complemented with new LII measurements for soot location, allowing a comprehensive analysis of the primary combustion region and to further assess and validate the LES/CMC approach to capture the flame behaviour at engine conditions. It is shown that the LES/CMC approach is able to predict the main characteristics of the flame with a good agreement with the experiment in terms of flame shape, spray characteristics and soot location. Finite-rate chemistry effects appear to be important in the region very close to the injector exit leading to the lift-off of the flame. Low levels of soot are observed immediately downstream of the injector exit. Further downstream, the strong production of soot precursors together with high soot surface growth rates lead to high values of soot volume fraction in locations consistent with the experiment.
TOPICS: Computer simulation, Ceramic matrix composites, Combustion chambers, Flames, Soot, Ejectors, Engines, Combustion, Chemistry, Computation, Shapes, Aircraft engines, Large eddy simulation, Stress, Pressure, Temperature, Sprays
Klaus Brun, Rainer Kurz and Sarah Simons
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4034314
Pressure pulsations into a centrifugal compressor can move its operating point into surge. This is concerning in pipeline stations where centrifugal compressors operate in series/parallel with reciprocating compressors. Sparks (1983), Kurz et al., (2006), and Brun et al., (2014) provided predictions on the impact of periodic pressure pulsation on the behavior of a centrifugal compressor. This interaction is known as the “Compressor Dynamic Response” (CDR) theory. Although the CDR describes the impact of the nearby piping system on the compressor surge and pulsation amplification, it has limited usefulness as a quantitative analysis tool, due to the lack of prediction tools and test data for comparison. Testing of compressor mixed operation was performed in an air loop to quantify the impact of periodic pressure pulsation from a reciprocating compressor on the surge margin of a centrifugal compressor. This data was utilized to validate predictions from Sparks' CDR theory and Brun's numerical approach. A 50 hp single-stage, double-acting reciprocating compressor provided inlet pulsations into a two-stage 700 hp centrifugal compressor. Tests were performed over a range of pulsation excitation amplitudes, frequencies, and pipe geometry variations to determine the impact of piping impedance and resonance responses. Results provided clear evidence that pulsations can reduce the surge margin of centrifugal compressors and that geometry of the piping system immediately upstream and downstream of a centrifugal compressor will have an impact on the surge margin reduction. Surge margin reductions of <30% were observed for high centrifugal compressor inlet suction pulsation.
TOPICS: Compressors, Surges, Pressure, Pipes, Geometry, Piping systems, Testing, Dynamic response, Suction, Pipelines, Excitation, Resonance
shilpi agarwal, Puneet Rana and B. S. Bhadauria
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4028491
In this paper, we study the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium on the linear thermal instability in a horizontal layer of a Newtonian nanofluid. The nanofluid layer incorporates the effect of Brownian motion along with thermophoresis. A two-temperature model has been used for the effect of local thermal non-equilibrium among the particle and fluid phases. The linear stability is based on normal mode technique and for nonlinear analysis, a minimal representation of the truncated Fourier series analysis involving only two terms has been used. We observe that for linear instability, the value of Rayleigh number can be increased by a substantial amount on considering a bottom heavy suspension of nano particles. The effect of various parameters on Rayleigh number has been presented graphically. A weak nonlinear theory based on the truncated representation of Fourier series method has been used to find the concentration and the thermal Nusselt numbers. The behavior of the concentration and thermal Nusselt numbers is also investigated by solving the finite amplitude equations using a numerical method.
TOPICS: Equilibrium (Physics), Nanofluids, Rayleigh-Benard convection, Fourier series, Rayleigh number, Nanoparticles, Numerical analysis, Stability, Temperature, Fluids, Particulate matter, Brownian motion
Corey E. Clifford and Mark Kimber
J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power   doi: 10.1115/1.4028492
Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder is of importance in a large number of applications. Although the topic has a rich history for free cylinders, maximizing the free convective cooling through the introduction of sidewalls and creation of a chimney effect is considerably less studied. In this study, a numerical model of a heated horizontal cylinder confined between two, vertical adiabatic walls is employed to evaluate the natural convective heat transfer. Two different treatments of the cylinder surface are investigated: constant temperature (isothermal) and constant surface heat flux (isoflux). To quantify the effect of wall distance on the effective heat transfer from the cylinder surface, 18 different confinement ratios are selected in varying increments from 1.125 to 18.0. All of these geometrical configurations are evaluated at seven distinct Rayleigh numbers ranging from 102 to 105. Maximum values of the surface-averaged Nusselt number are observed at an optimum confinement ratio for each analyzed Rayleigh number. Relative to the pseudo-unconfined cylinder at the largest confinement ratio, a 74.2% improvement in the heat transfer from an isothermal cylinder surface is observed at the optimum wall spacing for the highest analyzed Rayleigh number. An analogous improvement of 60.9% is determined for the same conditions with a constant heat flux surface. Several correlations are proposed to evaluate the optimal confinement ratio and the effective rate of heat transfer at that optimal confinement level for both thermal boundary conditions. One of the main application targets for this work is spent nuclear fuel, which after removal from the reactor core is placed in wet storage and then later transferred to cylindrical dry storage canisters. In light of enhanced safety, many are proposing to decrease the amount of time the fuel spends in wet storage conditions. The current study helps to establish a fundamental understanding of the buoyancy-induced flows around these dry cask storage canisters to address the anticipated needs from an accelerated fuel transfer program.
TOPICS: Heat, Natural convection, Cylinders, Storage, Heat transfer, Rayleigh number, Heat flux, Fuels, Safety, Computer simulation, Cooling, Temperature, Flow (Dynamics), Buoyancy, Spent nuclear fuels, Convection, Boundary-value problems

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