Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Turbomachinery

Performance of Inlet Filtration System in Relation to the Uncaptured Particles Causing Fouling in the Gas Turbine Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Uyioghosa Igie

School of Aerospace, Transport and
Manufacturing (SATM),
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: u.igie@cranfield.ac.uk

Domenico Amoia, Georgios Michailidis, Orlando Minervino

School of Aerospace, Transport and
Manufacturing (SATM),
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Contributed by the Turbomachinery Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 22, 2015; final manuscript received June 22, 2015; published online August 25, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Klaus Brun.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 138(1), 012601 (Aug 25, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-15-1105; doi: 10.1115/1.4031223 History: Received March 22, 2015; Revised June 22, 2015

Accounting for the impact of uncaptured particles that cause compressor fouling and subsequently performance degradation when a filter system is in place is often ignored when evaluating the performance of filtration systems. Too often, the emphasis is on capture efficiency and the corresponding differential pressure loss, which are important aspects, however only constitutes a part of the overall impact on the engine performance. The main aim of this study is a first step to quantify the loss that is attributed to compressor fouling by the uncaptured particles, identify a threshold point for which further increase in pressure losses (increasing capture efficiency) no longer yields further increases in fouling levels, and subsequently investigate these respective losses and total losses in a reference high efficiency system (HES) and a hypothetical low efficiency system. Corrected operational data from a 268 MW gas turbine engine were used to evaluate the levels of degradation in the engine at different power settings. With the measured filter media pressure loss during operation and turbomatch (an in-house gas turbine performance simulation software), the impact of power reduction due to pressure loss of the filter was accounted for in the total estimated losses due to engine degradation. That of fouling was calculated based on applicable assumptions, while deducting the loss due to filtration systems from the total loss due to degradation. The study shows the inverse relationship between fouling effects and filter pressure losses as expected. More importantly, it indicates that the higher efficiency system performs better than the low efficiency system, notwithstanding the more dominant impact of higher differential pressure losses. It was also observed that the threshold where fouling effects are zero or negligible is around 800 Pa at high power setting and 600 Pa at lower power setting. In general, for all forms of the degradation using the engine data and simulation software, it is observed that at lower power settings, the impact on the engine is a lot more severe in a single-shaft constant speed operation.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Igie, U. , and Minervino, O. , 2014, “Impact of Inlet Filter Pressure Loss on Single and Two-Spool Gas Turbine Engines for Different Control Modes,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(9), p. 091201. [CrossRef]
Schroth, T. , and Cagna, M. , 2008, “Economical Benefits of Highly Efficient Three-Stage Intake Air Filtration for Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50280.
Kurz, R. , Brun, K. , and Wollie, M. , 2009, “Degradation Effects on Industrial Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 131(6), p. 062401. [CrossRef]
Wilcox, M. , Baldwin, R. , Garcia-Hernandez, A. , and Brun, K. , 2010, Guideline for Gas Turbine Inlet Air Filtration Systems, Gas Machinery Research Council, Dallas, TX.
Manstein, H. , and Rothmann, A. , 2009, “Filter Concepts for Gas Turbines-Overview and Field Report on Utility Value Enhancement With Three-Stage Filtration,” VGB Conference—Gas Turbines and Operation of Gas Turbines, Mannheim, Germany, June 24–25, pp. 78–82.
Diakunchak, I. , 1992, “Performance Deterioration in Industrial Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 114(2), pp. 161–168. [CrossRef]
Igie, U. , Pilidis, P. , Fouflias, D. , Ramsden, K. , and Laskaridis, P. , 2014, “Industrial Gas Turbine Performance: Compressor Fouling and On-Line Washing,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(10), p. 101001. [CrossRef]
Syverud, E. , and Bakken, L. , 2007, “Online Water Wash Tests of GE J85-13,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(1), pp. 136–142. [CrossRef]
Kurz, R. , and Brun, K. , 2000, “Degradation in Gas Turbine Systems,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(1), pp. 70–77. [CrossRef]
Boyce, M. , and Gonzalez, F. , 2005, “A Study of On-Line and Off-Line Turbine Washing to Optimize the Operation of a Gas Turbine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 129(1), pp. 114–122. [CrossRef]
Cohen, H. , Rogers, G. , and Saravanamuttoo, H. , 1996, Gas Turbine Theory, 4th ed., Longman Group Limited, Essex, UK.
Eshati, S. , 2012, “An Evaluation of Operation and Creep Study of a Stationary Gas Turbine,” Ph.D. thesis, Cranfield University, Bedford, UK.
Susta, M. , and Greth, M. , 2001, “Efficiency Improvement Possibilities in CCGT Power Plant Technology,” PowerGen Asia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Sept. 19–21.
Corradetti, A. , and Desideri, U. , 2005, “Analysis of Gas-Steam Combined Cycles With Natural Gas Reforming and CO2 Capture,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 127(3), pp. 545–552. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Percentage change in PO due to correction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of filter pressure loss with time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Depiction of gas turbine and filter system and uncaptured particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Relationship between NDMF and PR (engine model)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

PO variation with time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Fouled rotor blades of gas turbine compressors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

TET variation with time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Nondimensional TET frequency distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure losses of HES and LES with time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Reductions in PO due to pressure losses for the HES

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Reductions in PO due to fouling for the HES

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Reductions in PO due to pressure losses for the LES

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Reductions in PO due to fouling for the LES

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Degradation of PO with time for various cases of nondimensional TET

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Impact of filter media pressure losses on PO for the different cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Impact and levels of fouling at various filter media pressure losses for cases 1 and 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Total reductions in PO due to filter losses and fouling with their respective proportions



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In