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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Oil and Gas Applications

Process Control for Compression Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Rainer Kurz

Solar Turbines, Incorporated,
San Diego, CA 92123
e-mail: rkurz@solarturbines.com

Klaus Brun

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78238
e-mail: klaus.brun@swri.org

Contributed by the Oil and Gas Applications Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received July 6, 2017; final manuscript received July 11, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(2), 022401 (Oct 03, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: GTP-17-1309; doi: 10.1115/1.4037723 History: Received July 06, 2017; Revised July 11, 2017

This paper discusses the interaction between a centrifugal compressor and the process, and as a result, the control requirements for centrifugal compressor packages. The focus is on variable speed, upstream, and midstream applications. The impact of the interaction between system characteristics and compressor characteristics both under steady-state and transient conditions is explained. Also considered are the concepts to optimize and control the units. Special attention is given to the issue of surge avoidance. Additionally, the impact of the process and how the process dynamics interact with the compressor is analyzed, categorized, and explained.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Head–flow characteristic of a compressor at constant speed. Operation at a flow higher or lower than the design flow causes incidence losses.

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Fig. 2

Control methods for centrifugal compressors: throttling, variable speed, and adjustable guide vanes [8]

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Fig. 4

Power consumption for different control methods

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Fig. 5

Different compressor configurations: (a) single section, straight through compressor, (b) multisection compressor, and (c) multibody tandem

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Fig. 6

Three-section compressor train with two side streams

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Fig. 7

Compressors for series and parallel operation

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Fig. 8

Behavior of a single-stage centrifugal compressor at positive and negative flow, showing isentropic head coefficient versus flow for machine Mach numbers from 0.57 to 0.85 [9]

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Fig. 9

System characteristics and compressor map

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Fig. 10

Load reduction: (left) pressure control and (right) flow control

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Fig. 11

Available power, compressor map, and pipeline characteristic

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Fig. 12

Typical operating points if transient conditions are considered, in this case due to a fast engine acceleration from 50% to 100% load

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Fig. 13

Compressor efficiency at different flow rates based on operation along a steady-state pipeline characteristic (pressure ratio at 100% flow = 1.4)

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Fig. 14

Load increase: (left) pressure control and (right) flow control

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