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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Fuel Stratification and Partially Premixed Combustion With Neat n-Butanol in a Compression Ignition Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Shouvik Dev

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive and Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: devs@uwindsor.ca

Tongyang Gao

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive and Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: gao1l@uwindsor.ca

Xiao Yu

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive and Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: Xiao.Yu@uwindsor.ca

Mark Ives

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive and Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: ivesm@uwindsor.ca

Ming Zheng

Department of Mechanical,
Automotive and Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
401 Sunset Avenue,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: mzheng@uwindsor.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 14, 2018; final manuscript received May 27, 2018; published online August 13, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 122803 (Aug 13, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1069; doi: 10.1115/1.4040517 History: Received February 14, 2018; Revised May 27, 2018

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has been considered as an ideal combustion mode for compression ignition (CI) engines due to its superb thermal efficiency and low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter. However, a challenge that limits practical applications of HCCI is the lack of control over the combustion rate. Fuel stratification and partially premixed combustion (PPC) have considerably improved the control over the heat release profile with modulations of the ratio between premixed fuel and directly injected fuel, as well as injection timing for ignition initiation. It leverages the advantages of both conventional direct injection compression ignition and HCCI. In this study, neat n-butanol is employed to generate the fuel stratification and PPC in a single cylinder CI engine. A fuel such as n-butanol can provide additional benefits of even lower emissions and can potentially lead to a reduced carbon footprint and improved energy security if produced appropriately from biomass sources. Intake port fuel injection (PFI) of neat n-butanol is used for the delivery of the premixed fuel, while the direct injection (DI) of neat n-butanol is applied to generate the fuel stratification. Effects of PFI-DI fuel ratio, DI timing, and intake pressure on the combustion are studied in detail. Different conditions are identified at which clean and efficient combustion can be achieved at a baseline load of 6 bar IMEP. An extended load of 14 bar IMEP is demonstrated using stratified combustion with combustion phasing control.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of engine test setup

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Fig. 2

Port fuel injection enabled combustion—pressure and HRR

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Fig. 3

Direct injection enabled combustion—pressure and HRR

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Fig. 4

Indicated mean effective pressure and peak PRR versus intake pressure

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Fig. 5

CA5, CA50, and CA5-50 versus intake pressure

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Fig. 6

Indicated THC, CO, and NOx versus intake pressure

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Fig. 7

Stratified combustion—pressure and HRR

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Fig. 8

Indicated mean effective pressure and peak PRR versus DI timing

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Fig. 9

CA5, CA50, and CA95 versus DI timing

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Fig. 10

Indicated THC, CO, and NOx versus DI timing

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Fig. 11

Pressure and HRR at 0% and 100% PFI energy

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Fig. 12

Indicated mean effective pressure and peak PRR versus PFI energy

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Fig. 13

CA5 and CA5-50 versus PFI energy

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Fig. 14

Indicated THC, CO, NOx, and soot versus PFI energy

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Fig. 15

Pressure and HRR for PFI+DI-1+DI-2

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Fig. 16

Pressure and HRR for DI-1+DI-2

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Fig. 17

CA5, CA50, and peak PRR versus IMEP

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Fig. 18

Indicated THC, NOx, soot, and intake O2 versus IMEP

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Fig. 19

Estimation of bulk gas temperature for load extension methods

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Fig. 20

CA5, CA50, and IMEP versus DI-2 timing

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Fig. 21

Indicated THC, NOx, and soot versus DI-2 timing

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