Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Effects of Wall Heat Loss on Swirl-Stabilized Nonpremixed Flames With Localized Extinction

[+] Author and Article Information
Huangwei Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National University of Singapore,
9 Engineering Drive 1,
Singapore 117576
e-mail: huangwei.zhang@nus.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Combustion and Fuels Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received February 25, 2018; final manuscript received May 10, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Sunil Patil.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 121506 (Aug 20, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4040516 History: Received February 25, 2018; Revised May 10, 2018

Large eddy simulation (LES) with three-dimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) subgrid model for combustion is applied to simulate a swirl-stabilized nonpremixed methane flame with localized extinction, with special focus on the effects of heat loss to the burner surface. The convective wall heat loss is modeled through introducing a source term in the conditionally filtered total enthalpy equation for the CMC cells adjacent to the wall. The mean heat flux is high on the middle surface of the bluff body, but relatively low near its edges. The turbulent heat flux based on the gradient of the resolved temperature is relatively low compared to the laminar counterpart, but increases with the turbulent intensity. The heat loss facilitates the occurrences of extinction and re-ignition for the CMC cells immediately adjacent to the wall, evidenced by comparing flame structures in the near-wall CMC cells. This can be directly linked to the increase of the mean conditional scalar dissipation near the wall in the heat loss case. Furthermore, the degree of local extinction near the bluff body measured by conditional reactedness at stoichiometry is intensified due to the wall heat loss. However, the results also show that there is negligible influence of wall heat loss on the probability density function (PDF) of the lift-off height, demonstrating the dominance of aerodynamic effects on flame stabilization. The results are in reasonable agreement with experimental measurements.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Poinsot, T. , and Veynante, D. , 2005, Theoretical and Numerical Combustion, R.T. Edwards, Philadelphia, PA.
Ju, Y. , and Maruta, K. , 2012, “Microscale Combustion: Technology Development and Fundamental Research,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 37(6), pp. 669–715. [CrossRef]
Kaisare, N. S. , and Vlachos, D. G. , 2012, “A Review on Microcombustion: Fundamentals, Devices and Applications,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 38(3), pp. 321–359. [CrossRef]
Lefebvre, A. H. , 1999, Gas Turbine Combustion, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, London.
Drysdale, D. , 1999, An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, 3rd ed., Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Karman, T. V. , and Millan, G. , 1953, “Thermal Theory of a Laminar Flame Front Near a Cold Wall,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 4(1), pp. 173–177. [CrossRef]
Adamczyk, A. , and Lavoie, G. , 1978, “Laminar Head-On Flame Quenching—A Theoretical Study,” SAE Paper No. 780969.
Carrier, G. F. , 1979, “Nonisenthalpic Interaction of a Planar Premixed Laminar Flame With a Parallel End Wall,” SAE Paper No. 790245.
Westbrook, C. K. , Adamczyk, A. A. , and Lavoie, G. A. , 1981, “A Numerical Study of Laminar Flame Wall Quenching,” Combust. Flame, 40, pp. 81–99. [CrossRef]
Hocks, W. , Peters, N. , and Adomeit, G. , 1981, “Flame Quenching in Front of a Cold Wall Under Two-Step Kinetics,” Combust. Flame, 41, pp. 157–170. [CrossRef]
Egolfopoulos, F. N. , Zhang, H. , and Zhang, Z. , 1997, “Wall Effects on the Propagation and Extinction of Steady, Strained, Laminar Premixed Flames,” Combust. Flame, 109(1–2), pp. 237–252. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. , and Chen, Z. , 2013, “Effects of Heat Conduction and Radical Quenching on Premixed Stagnation Flame Stabilized by a Wall,” Combust. Theory Modell., 17(4), pp. 682–706. [CrossRef]
Vlachos, D. G. , Schmidt, L. D. , and Aris, R. , 1993, “Ignition and Extinction of Flames Near Surfaces: Combustion of H2 in Air,” Combust. Flame, 95(3), pp. 313–335. [CrossRef]
Nakamura, H. , Fan, A. , Minamizono, H. , Maruta, K. , Kobayashi, H. , and Niioka, T. , 2009, “Bifurcations of Stretched Premixed Flame Stabilized by a Hot Wall,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(1), pp. 1367–1374. [CrossRef]
Altay, H. M. , Kedia, K. S. , Speth, R. L. , and Ghoniem, A. F. , 2010, “Two-Dimensional Simulations of Steady Perforated-Plate Stabilized Premixed Flames,” Combust. Theor. Model., 14(1), pp. 125–154. [CrossRef]
Mallens, R. M. M. , and Goey, L. P. H. D. , 1998, “Flame Cooling by a Curved Burner Wall,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(4–5), pp. 699–707. [CrossRef]
Oijen, J. A. , and Goey, L. P. H. , 2000, “Modelling of Premixed Laminar Flames Using Flamelet-Generated Manifolds,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 161(1), pp. 113–137. [CrossRef]
Popp, P. , and Baum, M. , 1997, “Analysis of Wall Heat Fluxes, Reaction Mechanisms, and Unburnt Hydrocarbons During the Head-On Quenching of a Laminar Methane Flame,” Combust. Flame, 108(3), pp. 327–348. [CrossRef]
Jiménez, J. , 2013, “Near-Wall Turbulence,” Phys. Fluids, 25(10), pp. 101302–101330. [CrossRef]
Grötzbach, G. , 1987, “Direct Numerical and Larger Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Channel Flows,” Encyclopedia of Fluid Mechanics, West Orange, NJ, pp. 1337–1391.
Schmitt, P. , Poinsot, T. , Schuermans, B. , and Geigle, K. P. , 2007, “Large-Eddy Simulation and Experimental Study of Heat Transfer, Nitric Oxide Emissions and Combustion Instability in a Swirled Turbulent High-Pressure Burner,” J. Fluid Mech., 507, pp. 17–46. [CrossRef]
Bray, K. N. C. , and Peters, N. , 1994, “Laminar Flamelets in Turbulent Flames,” Turbulent Reacting Flows, P. A. Libby and F. Williams , eds., Academic, New York.
Hergart, C. , and Peters, N. , 2001, “Applying the Representative Interactive Flamelet Model to Evaluate the Potential Effect of Wall Heat Transfer on Soot Emissions in a Small-Bore Direct-Injection Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 124(4), p. 10421052.
Song, L. , and Abraham, J. , 2004, “A Wall-Modified Flamelet Model for Diesel Combustion,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0103.
Kim, G. , Kang, S. , Kim, Y. , and Lee, K.-S. , 2008, “Conditional Moment Closure Modeling for a Three-Dimensional Turbulent Non-Premixed Syngas Flame With a Cooling Wall,” Energy Fuels, 22(6), pp. 3639–3648. [CrossRef]
Paola, G. D. , Mastorakos, E. , Wright, Y. M. , and Boulouchos, K. , 2008, “Diesel Engine Simulations With Multi-Dimensional Conditional Moment Closure,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 180(5), pp. 883–899. [CrossRef]
Kariuki, J. , Dawson, J. R. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2012, “Measurements in Turbulent Premixed Bluff Body Flames Close to Blow-Off,” Combust. Flame, 159(8), pp. 2589–2607. [CrossRef]
Cavaliere, D. , Kariuki, J. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2013, “A Comparison of the Blow-Off Behaviour of Swirl-Stabilized Premixed, Non-Premixed and Spray Flames,” Flow, Turbul. Combust, 91(2), pp. 347–372. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2016, “Prediction of Global Extinction Conditions and Dynamics in Swirling Non-Premixed Flames Using LES/CMC Modelling,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 96(4), pp. 863–889. [CrossRef]
Fureby, C. , 1996, “On Subgrid Scale Modeling in Large Eddy Simulations of Compressible Fluid Flow,” Phys. Fluids, 8(5), pp. 1301–1429. [CrossRef]
Pera, C. , Réveillon, J. , Vervisch, L. , and Domingo, P. , 2006, “Modeling Subgrid Scale Mixture Fraction Variance in LES of Evaporatimg Spray,” Combust. Flame, 146(4), pp. 635–648. [CrossRef]
Garmory, A. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2011, “Capturing Localised Extinction in Sandia Flame F With LES-CMC,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(1), pp. 1673–1680. [CrossRef]
Pierce, C. D. , and Moin, P. , 1998, “A Dynamic Model for Subgrid-Scale Variance and Dissipation Rate of a Conserved Scalar,” Phys. Fluids, 10(12), pp. 3041–3044. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. , Garmory, A. , Cavaliere, D. E. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2014, “Large Eddy Simulation/Conditional Moment Closure Modeling of Swirl-Stabilized Non-Premixed Flames With Local Extinction,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 35(2), pp. 1167–1174. [CrossRef]
Garmory, A. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2014, “Numerical Simulation of Oxy-Fuel Jet Flames Using Unstructured LES-CMC,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 35(2), pp. 1207–1214. [CrossRef]
Clearly, M. , and Kent, J. , 2005, “Modelling of Species in Hood Fires by Conditional Moment Closure,” Combust. Flame, 143(4), pp. 357–368. [CrossRef]
Siwaborworn, P. , and Kronenburg, A. , 2013, “Conservative Implementation of LES-CMC for Turbulent Jet Flames,” High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering ‘12, Nagel, W., Kröner, D., and Resch, M., eds., Springer, Berlin, pp. 159–173.
Zhang, H. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2017, “Modelling Local Extinction in Sydney Swirling Non-Premixed Flames With LES/CMC,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 36(2), pp. 1669–1676. [CrossRef]
Brien, O. E. , and Jiang, T. L. , 1991, “The Conditional Dissipation Rate of an Initially Binary Scalar in Homogeneous Turbulence,” Phys. Fluids, 3(12), pp. 3121–3123. [CrossRef]
Triantafyllidis, A. , and Mastorakos, E. , 2010, “Implementation Issues of the Conditional Moment Closure Model in Large Eddy Simulations,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 84(3), pp. 481–512. [CrossRef]
Navarro-Martinez, S. , Kronenburg, A. , and Mare, F. D. , 2005, “Conditional Moment Closure for Large Eddy Simulations,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 75(1–4), pp. 245–274. [CrossRef]
Beer, J. M. , and Chigier, N. A. , 1971, Combustion Aerodynamics, Applied Science Publishers, London.
Brown, P. N. , and Hindmarsh, A. C. , 1989, “Reduced Storage Matrix Methods in Stiff ODE Systems,” J. Appl. Math. Comput., 31, pp. 40–91. [CrossRef]
Sung, C. J. , Law, C. K. , and Chen, J. Y. , 1998, “An Augmented Reduced Mechanism for Methane Oxidation With Comprehensive Global Parametric Validation,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 27(1), pp. 295–304. [CrossRef]
Cavaliere, D. E. , 2013, “Blow-Off in Gas Turbine Combustors,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.648548
Wang, Yi, and Arnaud Trouvé. “Direct numerical simulation of nonpremixed flame-wall interactions.” Combustion and flame 144.3 (2006): 461-475.
Lataillade, A. D. , Dabireau, F. , Cuenot, B. , and Poinsot, T. , 2002, “Flame/Wall Interaction and Maximum Wall Heat Fluxes in Diffusion Burners,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 29(1), pp. 775–779. [CrossRef]
Masri, A. R. , Dibble, R. W. , and Barlow, R. S. , 1996, “The Structure of Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames Revealed by Raman-Rayleigh-LIF Measurements,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 22(4), pp. 307–362. [CrossRef]
Kariuki, J. , 2012, Turbulent Premixed Flame Stabilization and Blow-Off, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic showing CMC cell reconstruction and coupling between LES and CMC solvers [29]. The two-dimensional mesh denotes the slice through a three-dimensional unstructured LES mesh. Lines enclosing the continuous grey cells are CMC edges while other lines are LES ones. Circles denote centroids of LES cells while squares CMC nodes. The cells enclosed by CMC edges are the reconstructed CMC cells.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the burner and (b) the swirler as well as the bluff body

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of LES mesh distribution in the annulus and combustion chamber

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Reconstructed CMC mesh statistics: number of (a) LES cells and (b) CMC faces constituting one CMC cell

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Radial profiles of mean (left) and rms (right) axial velocity at x/Db = 0.4, 0.6, 2.2 and 4.4. These locations are indicated in Fig. 3.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Radial profiles of mean (left) and rms (right) swirl velocity at x/Db = 0.4, 0.6, 2.2 and 4.4. These locations are indicated in Fig. 3.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Radial profiles of mean heat flux and temperature gradient on the bluff body surface (0.08 ≤ r/Db ≤0.5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Probability density function of the bluff body surface heat flux. The data are extracted both in time and space over the whole bluff body surface.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variations of conditionally filtered (a) volumetric heat loss and (b) total enthalpy. Symbols: mean conditional heat flux. The data are from a CMC cell immediately adjacent to the bluff body surface (CMC cell centroid coordinate: x/Db = 0.012, y/Db = 0.4 and z/Db = 0).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Time records of conditionally filtered (a) heat release rate, (b) OH mass fraction, (c) temperature, (d) scalar dissipation, and (e) volumetric heat loss at η = ξst from the same CMC cell as in Fig. 9

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparisons of the mean conditional mass fractions of (a) CH4, (b) O2, (c) H2O, and (d) CH2O between adiabatic (dash-dot lines) and heat loss (solid lines) cases. The same CMC cell as in Fig. 9.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparisons of the mean conditional (a) OH mass fraction, (b) heat release rate, (c) temperature, and (d) total enthalpy between adiabatic (dash-dot lines) and heat loss (solid lines) cases. The same CMC cell as in Fig. 9.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Probability density function of reactedness at η = ξst from (a) temperature, mass fractions of (b) OH, (c) CO, and (d) NO. Dash-dot lines: adiabatic case, solid lines: heat loss case.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The mean conditional scalar dissipation rates of three near-wall CMC cells (x/Db = z/Db = 0) from adiabatic and heat loss cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparisons of mean conditional OH mass fractions between adiabatic (dash-dot lines) and heat loss (solid lines) cases at four streamwise positions x/Db = (a) 0.03, (b) 0.17, (c) 0.8, and (d) 1.6 with y/Db = 0.4 and z/Db = 0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Iso-surfaces of instantaneous stoichiometric mixture fraction colored by conditional (a) OH mass fraction and (b) temperature at stoichiometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Probability density function of reactedness at η = ξst from (a) temperature and (b) OH mass fraction corresponding to the three-dimensional stoichiometric iso-surface within 0 ≤ x/Db ≤ 0.8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Probability density functions of lift-off height from simulations with (a) heat loss and (b) adiabatic walls [34]. Line: experimental results [28].



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In