0
Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Sources of Particulate Matter Emissions Variability From a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Manuel J. M. G. Ramos

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road, Toronto,
ON M5S3G8, Canada
e-mail: manuel.ramos@mail.utoronto.ca

James S. Wallace

Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering,
University of Toronto,
5 King's College Road, Toronto, ON M5S3G8,
Canada
e-mail: wallace@mie.utoronto.ca

Contributed by the IC Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received March 7, 2018; final manuscript received April 19, 2018; published online August 30, 2018. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 140(12), 122805 (Aug 30, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: GTP-18-1118; doi: 10.1115/1.4040515 History: Received March 07, 2018; Revised April 19, 2018

Particulate matter (PM) emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are a concern due to the health effects associated with ultrafine PM. This experimental study investigated sources of PM emissions measurement variability observed in previous tests and also examined the effect of ethanol content in gasoline on PM emissions. Some engine operating parameters (fuel and oil temperature, positive crankcase ventilation filtration) and test conditions (dilution air conditions) were studied and controlled but could not account for the level of measurement variability observed. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) measurements of gas phase hydrocarbon emissions provided evidence that changes in fuel composition were responsible for the variability. Exhaust emissions of toluene and ethanol were correlated positively with PM emissions, while emissions of isobutylene correlated negatively. Exhaust emissions of toluene and isobutylene were interpreted as markers of gasoline aromatic content and gasoline volatility, respectively. Tests conducted with gasoline containing added toluene (10% v/v) supported this hypothesis and led to the overall conclusion that the PM emissions variability observed can be attributed to changes in the composition of the pump gasoline being used. Tests conducted with gasoline containing added ethanol (10% and 30% v/v) found that increasing ethanol fuel content increased PM emissions at the steady-state operating condition utilized.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Mireault, P. , 2014, “Methodology of Measuring Particulate Matter Emissions From a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” M.Sc. thesis. University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. http://hdl.handle.net/1807/44046
Ronkko, T. , Virtanen, A. , Vaaraslahti, K. , Keskinen, J. , Pirjola, L. , and Lappi, M. , 2006, “Effect of Dilution Conditions and Driving Parameters on Nucleation Mode Particles in Diesel Exhaust: Laboratory and On-Road Study,” Atmos. Environ., 40(16), pp. 2893–2901. [CrossRef]
Shi, S. P. , and Harrison, R. M. , 1999, “Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Formation During Diesel Exhaust Dilution,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 33(21), pp. 3730–3736. [CrossRef]
Kittelson, D. , and Addul Khalek, I. , 1999, “Formation of Nanoparticles During Exhaust Dilution,” Fuels, Lubricants, Engines, and Emissions, EFI Members Conference, Crete, Greece, Jan. 18--20, pp. 1--13. http://www.me.umn.edu/centers/cdr/reports/OtherEFI.pdf
Whelan, I. , Samuel, S. , and Hassaneen, A. , 2012, “Investigation Into the Role of Catalytic Converters on Tailpipe-Out Nano-Scale Particulate Matter From Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-1617.
Berndorfer, A. , Breuer, S. , Piock, W. , and Bacho, P. V. , 2013, “Diffusion Combustion Phenomena in GDI Engines Caused by Injection Process,” SAE Paper No. 2013-02-0261.
Berkemeier, O. , Grieser, K. , Hohenboeken, K. , Karvounis, E. , and Springer, K. M. , 2013, “Strategies to Control Particulate Emissions of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress, Beijing, China, Nov. 27--30, pp. 699–714.
Guthrie, P. W. , 2001, “A Review of Fuel, Intake and Combustion System Deposit Issues Relevant to 4-Stroke Gasoline Direct Fuel Injection Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1202.
Mackney, D. W. , Calder, R. M. , Macduff, M. , Martin, W. , Walter, D. , Katers, D. , and Bietzen, R. , 2002, “Reducing Deposits in a DISI Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-2660.
Von Bacho, P., Sofianek, J. K. , Galante-Fox, J. M. , and McMahon, C. J. , 2009, “Engine Test for Accelerated Fuel Deposit Formation on Injectors Used in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1495.
Russell, M. , Cummings, J. , Cushing, T. , and Studzinkski, W. , 2013, “Cellulosic Ethanol Fuel Quality Evaluation and Its Effects on PFI Intake Valve Deposits and GDI Fuel Injection Plugging Performance,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-0885.
Parsinejad, F. , and Biggs, W. , 2011, “Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Deposit Analysis: Combustion Chamber and Intake Valve Deposits,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-2110.
Christianson, M. G. , Bardasz, E. , and Nahumck, W. , 2010, “Impact of Lubricating Oil Condition on Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions From Light Duty Vehicles,” SAE Paper No. 2010-1-1560.
Kapus, P. , Fuerhapter, A. , Fuchs, H. , and Fraidl, D. K. , 2007, “Ethanol Direct Injection on Turbocharged SI Engines – Potential and Challenges,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1408.
Sagawa, T. , Fujimoto, H. , and Nakamura, K. , 2002, “Study of Fuel Dilution in Direct-Injection and Multi-Point Injection Gasoline Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1647.
Arnault, N. , and Bonne, S. , 2012, “Engine Lube-Oil Consumption Stakes and Benefits From Significant Blow-By Oil Most Reduction,” SAE Paper No. 2012-01-1617.
Aikawa, K. , Sakurai, T. , and Jetter, J. J. , 2010, “Development of a Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions,” SAE Paper No. 2010-01-2115.
Leach, F. , Stone, R. , and Richardson, D. , 2013, “The Influence of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emissions From a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-1558.
Glassman, I. , and Yeter, R. A. , 2008, Combustion, 4th ed., Elsevier, New York.
Turns, S. R. , 2000, An Introduction to Combustion: Concepts and Applications, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Research engine and emissions sampling arrangement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Relative standard deviations of total PN concentration with ambient dilution air and dry dilution air

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Two minute average particle size distributions for ambient and dry dilution air test groups. Error bars indicate standard error.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Normalized particle size distributions from Fig. 3. Error bars indicate standard error.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Particle number concentration change during a step change in fuel temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Two minute average PN concentrations with mileage accumulation as a function of time since oil change

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Successive borescope images of the cylinder #2 fuel injector face: (a) image key, (b) August 1, (c) August 16, and (d) September 9

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Images of intake runners for cylinders 1–4 from left to right: (a) before engine cleaning and (b) after engine cleaning

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Collected oil/condensate in the intake manifold plenum, viewed from the perspective of the throttle body. Note that the manifold has been rotated on its side to purposely collect oil at the far side of the plenum to show the relative quantity of oil.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Oil separator filter before use (left) and after E10 test group (right). Absorbed oil is shown in right image by dark spots on filter media.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Successive images of the cylinder #4 intake runners and valves: (a) August 1, (b) August 16, and (c) September 9

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Particle number emissions before and after the engine cleaning. Shaded areas indicate standard error.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Relative standard deviation of PN measurements before and after engine cleaning

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Two minute average PN versus toluene exhaust concentration at run end for the different test fuels with LLS regression lines shown2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Two minute average PN versus isobutylene exhaust concentration at run end for the different test fuels with LLS regression lines shown2

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In