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RESEARCH PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Combustion and Fuels

Modeling of Gas Turbine Fuel Nozzle Spray

[+] Author and Article Information
N. K. Rizk, J. S. Chin, M. K. Razdan

Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN 46206

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 119(1), 34-44 (Jan 01, 1997) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2815559 History: Received February 27, 1995; Online November 19, 2007

Abstract

Satisfactory performance of the gas turbine combustor relies on the careful design of various components, particularly the fuel injector. It is, therefore, essential to establish a fundamental basis for fuel injection modeling that involves various atomization processes. A two-dimensional fuel injection model has been formulated to simulate the airflow within and downstream of the atomizer and address the formation and breakup of the liquid sheet formed at the atomizer exit. The sheet breakup under the effects of airblast, fuel pressure, or the combined atomization mode of the airassist type is considered in the calculation. The model accounts for secondary breakup of drops and the stochastic Lagrangian treatment of spray. The calculation of spray evaporation addresses both droplet heat-up and steady-state mechanisms, and fuel vapor concentration is based on the partial pressure concept. An enhanced evaporation model has been developed that accounts for multicomponent, finite mass diffusivity and conductivity effects, and addresses near-critical evaporation. The presents investigation involved predictions of flow and spray characteristics of two distinctively different fuel atomizers under both nonreacting and reacting conditions. The predictions of the continuous phase velocity components and the spray mean drop sizes agree well with the detailed measurements obtained for the two atomizers, which indicates the model accounts for key aspects of atomization. The model also provides insight into ligament formation and breakup at the atomizer exit and the initial drop sizes formed in the atomizer near field region where measurements are difficult to obtain. The calculations of the reacting spray show the fuel-rich region occupied most of the spray volume with two-peak radial gas temperature profiles. The results also provided local concentrations of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) in atomizer flowfield, information that could support the effort to reduce emission levels of gas turbine combustors.

Copyright © 1997 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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