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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

The Potential for LNG as a Railroad Fuel in the U.S.

[+] Author and Article Information
S. G. Fritz

Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, P.O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, TX 78228-0510

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 122(1), 130-134 (Jul 27, 1999) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483184 History: Received April 01, 1997; Revised July 27, 1999
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Railroad Facts: 1998 Edition, 1998, published by the Association of American Railroads, L. C. Card No. A66-7305.
Bepple, G., et al., 1987, “The Economics of Natural Gas in Railway Locomotive Applications,” Transport Canada Report No. TP8765E, International Rail Consultants.
Para, C. J., and Moyer, C. B., 1992, “LNG as a Fuel for Railroads: Assessment of Technology Status and Economics,” Accurex Environmental Corporation for the Gas Research Institute under contract 0591-292-2153.
Gas-Fueled Railway Feasibility Study, 1994, SwRI Final Report No. 5285.
Wakenell, J. F., 1987, “High-Pressure Late Cycle Direct Injection of Natural Gas in a Rail Medium Speed Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 872041.
Wakenell, J. F., et al., 1988, “An Investigation of High Pressure/Late Cycle Injection of CNG as a Fuel for Rail Applications,” final report no. ORNL/Sub/85-220321/1 for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC05-840R21400.
Stolz, J. L., 1992, “Operating a Diesel Locomotive with Liquid Methane Fuel,” ASME Paper No. 92-ICE-5.
Olson, L. E., 1993, “The Natural Gas Locomotive at Burlington Northern Railroad,” paper presented at the International Association of Railway Operating Officers, September 12–15, 1993, Chicago, Illinois.
Jensen, S. C., 1994, “A Retrofit System to Convert a Locomotive to Natural Gas Operation,” Natural Gas and Alternative Fuels in Engines, ASME Publication No. ICE, Vol. 21.
Gillespie, M. J., and Jensen, M. A., 1994, “Effects of Fuel Gas Mixtures on Power Limits in a Dual-Fuel Engine,” Natural Gas and Alternative Fuels in Engines, ASME Publication No. ICE, Vol. 21.
Fritz, S. G., et al., 1989, “Diesel Fuel Specifications and Locomotive Improvement Program, Tenth Research Phase Final Report,” SwRI Report No. 03-2695, AAR Report No. R-771.
Locomotive Emission Study, 1991, final report submitted to the California Air Resources Board by Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc.
Markworth,  V. O. and Fritz,  S. G., 1992, “The Effect of Injection Timing, Enhanced Aftercooling, and Low-Sulfur, Low-Aromatic Diesel Fuel on Locomotive Exhaust Emissions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 114, pp. 488–495.
Cataldi, G. R., and Widell, G. W., 1992, “Locomotive Exhaust Emissions: Combined Effects of Low-Sulfur, Low-Aromatic, High-Cetane Fuel: Retarded Injection Timing; and Increased Aftercooling,” AAR Technology Digest TD 92-012.
Fritz, S. G., et al., 1994, “Locomotive Exhaust Emission Field Tests: Phase I—EMD SD40-2 and GE C40-8 Locomotives,” SwRI Report No. 03-4171-C, AAR Report No. R-877.
Fritz, S. G., et al., 1995, “Exhaust Emissions from In-Use Locomotives,” ASME Paper No. 95-ICE-4.
Fritz, S. G., Markworth, V. O., and Mason, R. L., 1995, “Exhaust Emission Field Tests of Several Locomotives: Phase II—EMD MP15AC, GP35, F40PH, SD60, and GE AMD-103, DASH8-32BWH, DASH9-44CW EFI, and Republic RD20 Locomotives,” final report for the Association of American Railroads (AAR), SwRI Report No. 03-4171-D, AAR Report No. R-885.
Fritz, S. G., 1995, “Emission Measurements—Locomotives,” draft final report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under work assignment 2-4 of EPA Contract No. 68-C2-0144, SwRI Project No. 08-5374-024.
Fed. Reg., 1998, 63 , No. 73, pp. 18798–19084.
Fritz, S. G., 1992, “Exhaust Emissions From Two Intercity Passenger Locomotives,” SwRI Report No. 08-4976.
Fritz,  S. G., 1994, “Exhaust Emissions from Two Intercity Passenger Locomotives,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 116, No. 4, pp. 774–783.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Relative size of major freight railway systems
Grahic Jump Location
Full load exhaust emissions results of BN No. 7890
Grahic Jump Location
BN No. 7890 natural-gas fueled locomotive
Grahic Jump Location
Metrolink F59PHI passenger locomotive before conversion to LNG

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