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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Ceramics

Exposure of Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites in Simulated and Actual Combustor Environments

[+] Author and Article Information
Karren L. More, Peter F. Tortorelli, Mattison K. Ferber, Larry R. Walker, James R. Keiser

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6064

Narendernath Miriyala, William D. Brentnall, Jeffrey R. Price

Solar Turbines Incorporated, San Diego, CA

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 122(2), 212-218 (Jan 03, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.483197 History: Received March 09, 1999; Revised January 03, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

van Roode, M., Brentall, W. D., Norton, P. F., and Pytanowski, G. P., 1993, “Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development,” ASME Paper 93-GT-309.
Price, J. R., Jiminez, O., Faulder, L., Edwards, B., and Parthasarthy, V., 1998, “Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine Development Program—Fifth Annual Summary,” ASME Paper 98-GT-181.
Stambler, I., 1997, “ARCO Operating Ceramics Centaur to Evaluate Actual Field Service,” Gas Turbine World, Sept.–Oct., pp. 20–22.
Robinson, R. C., and Smialek, J. L., 1998, “SiO2 Scale Volatility and Recession of CVD SiC in a High Pressure Burner Rig,” Electrochemical Society Proceedings, P. Y. Hou, et al., eds., The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 98-9 , pp. 406–417.
Etori, Y., et al., 1997, “Oxidation Behavior of Ceramics for Gas Turbines in Combustion Gas Flow at 1500°C,” ASME Paper 97-GT-355.
Keiser, J. R., Howell, M., Williams, J. J., and Rosenberg, R. A., 1996, “Compatability of Selected Ceramics with Steam-Methane Reformer Environments,” Proceedings of Corrosion/96, NACE International, Houston, TX, Paper 140.
Gray, P., Headinger, M., and Miller, A., 1996, “Long Term Tensile Stressed Oxidation and Fatigue Life of Enhanced SiC/SiC CMCs,” Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference on Ceramic, Metal and Carbon Composites, Materials and Structures, M. Opeka, ed., pp. 865–877.
Simpson,  J. F., Parthasarathy,  V., and Fahme,  A., 1997, “Testing of Monolithic Ceramics and Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composites for Gas Turbine Combustors,” Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 18, No. 4, pp. 229–238.
Opila,  E. J., and Hann,  R. E., 1997, “Paralinear Oxidation of CVD SiC in Water Vapor,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 80, No. 1, pp. 197–205.
Fox,  D. S., 1998, “Oxidation Behavior of CVD SiC and Si3N4 from 1200°C–1600°C,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 81, No. 4, pp. 945–950.
Opila, E. J., and Jacobsen, N. S., 1998, “Volatile Si-O-H Species in Combustion Environments,” Electrochemical Society Proceedings, P. Y. Hou, et al., eds., The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, 98-9 , pp. 524–534.
Opila,  E. J., 1994, “Oxidation Kinetics of CVD SiC in Wet Oxygen,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 77, No. 3, pp. 730–736.
Opila,  E. J., 1999, “Variation of the Oxidation Rate of SiC with Water-Vapor Pressure,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 82, No. 3, pp. 625–636.

Figures

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Schematic of SiC tube and gas assembly in ORNL rig. Furnace holds six vertically loaded tubes.
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Alumina carrier tube that holds tensile and flexure specimens for exposure in ORNL rig
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Schematic of specimens cut from inner and outer CFCC combustor liners after ARCO test
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Portion of the inner surface of outer liner; note two of the localized white damaged regions that corresponded directly with injector impingement areas (arrows)
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Microstructural damage at outer surface of inner liner after the ARCO test. (a) Section of liner taken from top (cooler) edge of liner showing intact SiC seal coat and non-damaged composite, and (b) section taken from center of exposed surface showing significant surface recession, loss of most of the seal coat, and extensive composite damage below the surface. Damage regions below surface consist primarily of reacted matrix constituents that form glass and loss of fibers.
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Typical microstructural damage observed at the outer surface of the inner liner. Arrows indicate areas of “pooled” glass observed throughout damaged region.
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CG Nicalon™ fibers were consumed during extensive matrix glass formation within damaged regions near exposed surface of inner liner. Arrows indicate fibers at different stages of reaction with glass.
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Typical microstructural damage observed at the inner surface of the outer liner after the ARCO test. Microstructural degradation was similar to that observed for the inner liner.
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Surface of Enhanced SiC/SiC specimen after 500 h exposure in ORNL rig. Material was co-processed with CFCC liners in ARCO test. Specimen geometry contributed to significant glass formation at cut/open edges.
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A comparison of cross-sections of the (a) as-processed Enhanced SiC/SiC material, and (b) the Enhanced SiC/SiC CFCC after exposure in the ORNL rig for 500 h. Compare localized microstructural degradation (reacted matrix constituents) in Fig. 10(b) (indicated by arrow) to inner liner degradation shown in Fig. 6.
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Microstructural degradation of Enhanced SiC/SiC CFCC after exposure in the ORNL rig for 1000 h. Compare microstructural degradation (reacted matrix constituents) in Fig. 11 (indicated by arrow) to inner liner degradation in Fig. 6.
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CVD SiC seal coat oxidized for 500 and 1000 h. It was determined from direct microstructural measurements that the SiC seal coat recessed by oxidation at a linear rate of approximately 45 μm/500 h.

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