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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Combustion and Fuel

An Experimental and Modeling Study of Humid Air Premixed Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
Anuj Bhargava, Med Colket, William Sowa

United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT 06070

Kent Casleton, Dan Maloney

U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV 26507

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 122(3), 405-411 (May 15, 2000) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286921 History: Received March 09, 1999; Revised May 15, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
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References

Rao, A. D., 1989, “Process for Producing Power,” US Patent 4,829,763, May 1989.
Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Public Report, Turbo Power and Marine (TPM), April, 1993.
Robson, F. L., 1993, “Advanced Turbine Systems Study-System Scoping And Feasibility Study,” DOE Contract DE-AC21-92MC29247, United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT.
Dryer, F. L., 1976, “Water Addition to Practical Combustion Systems-Concepts and Applications,” Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Philadelphia, PA.
Miyauchi, Y., Mori, Y., and Yamaguchi, T., 1981, “Effect of Steam Addition on NO Formation,” Eighteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
Touchton, G. L., 1985, “Influence of Gas Turbine Combustor Design and Operating Parameters on Effectiveness of NOx Suppression by Injected Steam or Water,” ASME Paper 84-JPGC-GT-3.
Blevins, L. G., and Roby, R. J., 1995, “An Experimental Study of NOx Reduction in Laminar Diffusion Flames by Addition of High Levels of Steam,” ASME Paper 95-GT-327.
Meyer, J.-L., and Grienche, G., 1997, “An Experimental Study of Steam Injection in an Aeroderivative Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper 97-GT-506.
Kendrick, D. W., Anderson, T. J., Sowa, W. A., and Snyder, T. S., 1998, “Acoustic Sensitivities of Lean-Premixed Fuel Injectors in A Single Nozzle Rig,” ASME Paper 98-GT-382.
Bowman, C. T., Hanson, R. K., Davidson, D. F., Gardiner, W. C., Jr., Lissianski, V., Smith, G. P., Golden, D. M., Frenklach, M., and Goldenberg, M., 1994, http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/
Glarborg, P., Kee, R. J., Grcar, J. F., and Miller, J. A., 1988, “PSR: A Fortran Compiler for Modeling Well-Stirred Reactors,” Sandia National Laboratories Report, SAND86-8209, Livermore, CA.
Leonard, G., and Stegmaier, J., 1994, “Development of an Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Dry Low Emissions Combustion Systems,” ASME Paper 93-GT-288.
Maghon, H., Berenbrink, P., Termuehlen, H., and Gartner, G., 1990, “Progress in NOx and CO Emission Reduction of Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper 90-IPGC/GT-4.
Nguyen,  Q. V., Edgar,  B. L., Dibble,  R. W., and Gulati,  A., 1995, “Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Extractive and In Situ Laser Measurements of Non-Equilibrium Carbon Monoxide in Lean-Premixed Gas Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 100, pp. 395–406.
Reynolds, W. C., 1981, “STANJAN,”Interactive Computer Programs for Chemical Equilibrium Analysis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Kee, R. J., and Lutz, A., private communication.
Zeldovich,  J., 1946, “The Oxidation of Nitrogen Combustion and Explosions,” Acta Physicochim. URSS, 21, p. 577.
Bowman, C. T., and Seery, D. J., 1972, Emissions from Continuous Combustion Systems, W. Cornelius and W. G. Agnew, eds., Plenum, New York, p. 123.
Fenimore, C. P., 1971, “Formation of Nitric Oxide in Premixed Hydrocarbon Flames,” Thirteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Philadelphia, PA.

Figures

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A schematic of the PSR reactor network used to model the flame
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Comparison between measured NOx and computed NOx at 200 psi at different pilot levels
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Comparison between measured CO and computed CO at 200 psi at different pilot levels
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Comparison between measured and computed NOx for a 5 percent side pilot flame at 200 psi for different steam loading
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A schematic of the HAT cycle
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A schematic of the experimental setup
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Comparison between measured and computed CO for a 5 percent side pilot flame at 200 psi for different steam loading
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Comparison between measured and computed NOx for a 5 percent side pilot flame at 200 psi for different steam loading
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Comparison between measured and computed CO for a 5 percent side pilot flame at 200 psi for different steam loading
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Influence of different pathways on NOx formation for a flame with a 0 percent side pilot and (a) 0 percent steam and (b) 15 percent steam. Calculations with one psr also shown for comparison purposes.
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Influence of different pathways on NOx formation for a flame stabilized by a 5 percent side pilot and (a) 0 percent and (b) 15 percent steam. Calculations with one psr also shown for comparison purposes.

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