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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Studies of Spray Breakup and Mixture Stratification in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Using KIVA-3V

[+] Author and Article Information
Dennis N. Assanis, Sang Jin Hong, Akihiro Nishimura, George Papageorgakis, Bruno Vanzieleghem

W. E. Lay Automotive Laboratory, University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2121

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 122(3), 485-492 (Jan 07, 2000) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1286675 History: Received December 12, 1998; Revised January 07, 2000
Copyright © 2000 by ASME
Topics: Sprays , Fuels , Engines , Turbulence
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References

Anderson, R. W., et al., 1996, “Understanding the Thermodynamics of Direct Injection Spark Ignition Combustion System: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation,” SAE Paper 962018.
Kume, T., Iwamoto, Y., Iida, K., Murakami, M., Akishino, K., and Ando, A., 1996, “Combustion Control Technologies for Direct Injection SI Engine,” SAE Paper 960600.
Iwamoto, Y., Noma, K., Nakayama, O., Yamauchi, T., and Ando, H., 1997, “Development of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” SAE Paper 970541.
Kuwahara, K., Ueda, K., and Ando, H., 1998, “Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” SAE 980158.
Harada, J., Tomita, T., Mizuno, H., Mashiki, Z., and Ito, Y., 1997, “Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine,” SAE Paper 970540.
Tomoda, T., Sasaki, S., Sawada, D., Saito, A., and Sami, H., 1997, “Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine—Study of Stratified Mixture Formation,” SAE Paper 970539.
Han, Z., Reitz, R. D., Claybaker, P. J., Rutland, C. J., Yang, J., and Anderson, R. W., 1996, “Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Structures on Fuel/Air Mixing in a Direct-Injected Spark-Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper 961192.
Han, Z., Reitz, R. D., Yang, J., and Anderson, R. W., 1997, “Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper 970625.
Han, Z., Fan, L., and Reitz, R. D., 1997, “Multidimensional Modeling of Spray Atomization and Air-Fuel Mixing in Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper 970884.
Amsden, A. A., 1993, “KIVA-3: A KIVA Program with Block-Structured Mesh for Complex Geometries,” Los Alamos National Lab., LA-12503-MS.
Naitoh, K., et al., 1998, “Numerical Optimization of the Fuel Mixing Process in a Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine,” SAE 981440.
Duclos, J. M., and Zolver, M., 1998, “3D Modeling of Intake, Injection and Combustion in a DI-SI engine under Homogeneous and Stratified Operating Conditions,” COMODIA 98, pp. 335–340.
O’Rourke, P. J., and Amsden, A. A., 1987, “The TAB Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,” SAE Paper 872089.
Reitz,  R. D., 1987, “Modeling Atomization Processes in High-Pressure Vaporizing Sprays,” Atomization Spray Technol., 3, pp. 309–337.
Miyamoto, T., and Kobayashi, T., 1996, “Structure of Sprays from an Air-Assist Hollow-Cone Injector,” SAE 960771.
Lee, C. F., and Bracco, F. V., 1995, “Comparisons of Computed and Measured Hollow-Cone Sprays in an Engine,” SAE 950284.
Han,  Z., Parrish,  S., Farrel,  P. V., and Reitz,  R. D., 1997, “Modeling Atomization Processes of Pressure-Swirl Hollow-Cone Fuel Sprays,” Atomization Sprays, 7, pp. 663–684.
Papageorgakis,  G. C., and Assanis,  D. N., 1996, “A Spray Breakup Model for Low Injection Pressures,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 23, No. 1, pp. 1–10.
Papageorgakis,  G. C., and Assanis,  D. N., 1999, “Comparison of Linear and Non-Linear RNG-Based k-ε models for Incompressible Turbulent Flows,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B, 35, pp. 1–22.
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Figures

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Average total velocity distribution computed with LPB and k-ε models for three increasingly dense grids
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SMD comparison with experimental data for combinations of LPB and TAB with k-ε and RNG turbulence models
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Comparison of spray tip penetration computed using the TAB and LPB models with experimental data 23
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Visualization of computed spray droplet distribution using LPB model (left) and TAB model (right) every 2 ms starting at t=2 ms. Experimental spray images 23 at 1, 4, and 6 ms for the modeled conditions
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Vertical and horizontal views of combustion chamber, and perspective view of the grid at TDC
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Consecutive snapshots of velocity profiles (left) and equivalence ratio contours (right) shown at (a) 30 deg BTDC, (b) 20 deg BTDC, and (c) 150 deg BTDC. Case A: baseline configuration with injection timing=40 deg BTDC and tumble ratio=1.0.
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Comparison of velocity distribution (left) and equivalence ratio contours (right) at the point if ignition (15 deg BTDC) for different tumble strengths and injection timings. Case B: tumble ratio=0, injection at 40 deg BTDC; Case C: tumble ratio=2, injection at 40 deg BTDC; Case D: tumble ratio=1.0, injection at 60 deg BTDC).
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Equivalence ratio near the spark plug for tumble ratio varied from 0 to 2
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Equivalence ratio near the spark plug for varied injection timings

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