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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Ceramics

Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

[+] Author and Article Information
S. R. Choi

Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, Ohio 44142e-mail: Sung.R.Choi@grc.nasa.gov

J. P. Gyekenyesi

NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135e-mail: John.P.Gyekenyesi@grc.nasa.gov

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 123(2), 277-287 (Oct 01, 2000) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1365160 History: Received October 01, 1999; Revised October 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

ASTM C1368-97, 1998, “Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics Using Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.
ASTM C1465-00, 2000, “Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics Using Constant Flexural Stress-Rate Testing at Elevated Temperatures,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.
Quinn,  G. D., and Morrell,  R., 1991, “Design Data for Engineering Ceramics: A Review of the Flexure Test,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 74, pp. 2037–2066.
Fett,  T., and Munz,  D., 1985, “Determination of Crack Growth Parameter N in Ceramics Under Creep Condition,” J. Test. Eval., 13, pp. 143–151.
Jadaan, O. M., 1991, “Life Prediction for Ceramic Tubular, Components,” in Life Prediction Methodologies and Data for Ceramic Materials, ASTM STP 1201, edited by Brinkman, C. R., and Duffy, S. D., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 309–332.
Choi,  S. R., and Gyekenyesi,  J. P., 1998, “Some Limitations in the Elevated-Temperature, Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing for Advanced Ceramics with Reference to the New, Ambient-Temperature Test Standard ASTM C1368,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., 19, pp. 595–605.
Chuck,  L., McCullum,  D. E., Hecht,  N. L., and Goodrich,  S. M., 1991, “High Temperature Tension-Tension Cyclic Fatigue for a Hipped Silicon, Nitride,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., 12, pp. 1509–1523.
Wiederhom, S. M., 1974, “Subcritical Crack Growth in Ceramics,” in Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Vol. 2, edited by Bradt, R. C., Hasselmann, D. P. H., and Lange, F. F., Plenum, New York, pp. 613–646.
Ritter, J. E., 1978, “Engineering Design and Fatigue Failure of Brittle Materials,” in Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Vol. 4, edited by R. C. Bradt, D. P. H. Hasselmann, and F. F. Lange, Plenum New York, pp. 661–686.
Evans,  A. G., 1974, “Slow Crack Growth in Brittle Materials under Dynamic Loading Conditions,” Int. J. Fract., 10, pp. 251–259.
Evans,  A. G., and Fuller,  E. R., 1974, “Crack Propagation in Ceramic Materials under Cyclic Loading Conditions,” Metall. Trans., 5, pp. 27–33.
Lawn,  B. R., Marshall,  D. B., Anstis,  G. R., and Dabbs,  T. P., 1981, “Fatigue Analysis of Brittle Materials Using Indentation Flaws, Part 1. General Theory,” J. Mater. Sci., 16, pp. 2846–2854.
Choi,  S. R., Ritter,  J. E., and Jakus,  K., 1990, “Failure of Glass with Subthreshold Flaws,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 72, pp. 268–274.
Choi,  S. R., and Salem,  J. A., 1996, “Cyclic Fatigue of Brittle Materials with an Indentation-Induced Flaw System,” Mat. Sci. Eng., A208, pp. 126–130.
(a) Choi,  S. R., and Gyekenyesi,  J. P., 1997, “Fatigue Strength as a Function of Preloading in Dynamic Fatigue Testing of Glass and Ceramics,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 119, pp. 493–499.(b) Choi,  S. R., and Salem,  J. A., 1996, “Preloading Technique in Dynamic Fatigue Testing of Glass and Ceramics with an Indentation Flaw System,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 79, pp. 1228–1232.
ASTM C1211-98a, 1998, “Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.
Choi,  S. R., and Salem,  J. A., 1998, “Ultra’-Fast Fracture Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures,” Mat. Sci. Eng., A242, pp. 129–136.
Choi, S. R., and Gyekenyesi, J. P., 2000, “Ultra’-Fast Fracture Strength of Advanced Structural Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures: An Approach to High-Temperature ‘Inert’ Strength,” presented at the 7th Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics Symposium, July 20–23, 1999, Moscow, Russia: to be published in Fracture Mechanics of Ceramics, Plenum, New York.

Figures

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Experimental results of flexure strength as a function of percent of interruption time (φ) for Case II loading tests, determined from 96 wt percent alumina at 1000°C. Two different constant stresses of 50 and 65 MPa were employed. The solid line represents the mean strength at φ=0.
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Comparison of experimental data with numerical solutions (“theoretical”) in Case I loading: (a) 96 wt percent alumina, (b) NC132 silicon nitride, (c) AS800 silicon nitride, and (d) Hexoloy silicon carbide. Error bars represents ±1.0 standard deviation, normalized with respect to a mean strength at φ=0.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of experimental data with numerical solutions (“theoretical”) in Case II loading tests for 96 wt percent alumina at 1000°C. Each data point with “triangle” symbol represents an overall mean strength value (normalized). The data points with triangle’s symbols (inner cross-marked) represent the lower-end strength values (normalized) from the data in Fig. 8. Error bars were omitted from plots for clarity.
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Experimental results of constant stress (“static fatigue”) testing for 96 wt percent alumina at 1000°C. A prediction made from the constant stress-rate (“dynamic fatigue”) testing data (6) was included as a dotted line.
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Schematics of three loading histories considered: (a) Case I loading, (b) Case II loading, and (c) Case III loading
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Numerical results of normalized strength (σf*) as a function of percent of interruption time (φ) for different values of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n in Case I loading
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Numerical results of normalized strength (σf*) as a function of percent of interruption time (φ) for different values of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n in Case II loading
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Numerical results of normalized strength (σf*) as a function of percent of interruption time (φ) for different values of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n in Case III loading
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Numerical results of normalized crack size (C*) as a function of time (J) for different values of interruption time (φ) in three loading histories: [A] for SCG parameter n=10; [B] for SCG parameter n=20
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Experimental results of flexural strength as a function of percent of interruption time (φ) for Case I loading tests, determined from 96 wt percent alumina, NC132, and AS800 silicon nitrides, and Hexoloy silicon carbide at elevated temperatures. Each solid line represents the mean strength at φ=0.

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