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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Structures and Dynamics

Improving the Stability of Labyrinth Gas Seals

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Kwanka

Chair of Thermal Power Systems, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 123(2), 383-387 (Mar 01, 1997) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1359772 History: Received December 01, 1996; Revised March 01, 1997
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Childs, D. W., 1993, Turbomachinery Rotordynamics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Wagner, N. G., and Steff, K., 1996, “Dynamic Labyrinth Coefficients From a High-Pressure Full-Scale Test Rig Using Magnetic Bearings,” NASA Conference Publication to be published, proceedings of a workshop held at Texas A&M University, May 6–8.
Childs,  D. W., Nelson,  C. E., Nicks,  C., Scharrer,  J., Elrod,  D., and Hale,  K., 1986, “Theory Versus Experiment for the Rotordynamic Coefficients of Annular Gas Seals: Part 1—Test Facility and Apparatus,” ASME J. Tribol., 108, pp. 426–432.
Hawkins,  L., Childs,  D., and Hale,  K., 1989, “Experimental Results for Labyrinth Gas Seals With Honeycomb Stators: Comparison to Smooth-Stator Seals and Theoretical Predictions,” ASME J. Tribol., 111, pp. 161–168.
Yu, Z., and Childs, D., 1996, “A Comparison of Rotordynamic Coefficients and Leakage Characteristics for Hole-Pattern Gas Damper Seals and Honeycomb Seal,” NASA Conference publication to be published, proceedings of a workshop held at Texas A&M University, May 6–8.
Wright, D. V., 1983, “Labyrinth Seal Forces on a Whirling Rotor,” ASME Applied Mechanics Division, Proceedings of the Symposium on Rotor Dynamical Instability, Vol. 55, M. L. Adams, Jr., ed., ASME, New York, pp. 19–31.
Millsaps, K. T., and Martinez-Sanches, M., 1993, “Rotordynamic Forces in Labyrinth Seals: Theory and Experiment,” NASA Conference Publication 3239, proceedings of a workshop held at Texas A&M University, pp. 179–207.
Matros, M., Neumer, T., and Nordmann, R., 1994, “Identification of Rotordynamic Coefficients of Centrifugal Pump Components Using Magnetic Bearings,” preprints of the Fifth International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-5), May 8–11, Kaanapali, HI, pp. 55–72.
Wagner, N. G., and Pietruszka, W. D., 1988, “Identification of Rotordynamic Parameters on a Test Stand with Magnetic Bearings,” Magnetic Bearings Proceedings of the First International Symposium, ETH Zürich, G. Schweitzer, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 289–299.
Kwanka, K., and Mair, R., 1995, “Identification of Gas Seal Dynamic Coefficients Based on the Stability Behavior of a Rotor,” Proceedings of the 1st European Conference of Turbomachinery—Fluid Dynamic and Thermodynamic Aspects, Mar. 1–3, Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, VDI-Report 1186, pp. 297–309.
Ulbrich, H., 1988, “New Test Techniques Using Magnetic Bearings,” Magnetic Bearings Proceedings of the First International Symposium, ETH Zürich, G. Schweitzer, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 281–288.
Kwanka, K., 1995, “Variation of Fluid Flow Forces in Seals With Rotor Bending,” DE-Vol. 84-2, 1995 Design Eng. Technical Conf., Vol. 3—Part B, DE-Vol. 84-2, ASME, New York, pp. 1277–1282.
Leie, B., and Thomas, H.-J., 1980, “Self-Excited Rotor Whirl Due to Tip-Seal Leakage Forces,” NASA Conference Publication 2133, proceedings of a workshop held at Texas A&M University, pp. 303–316.
Benckert, H., and Wachter, J., 1980, “Flow Induced Spring Coefficients of Labyrinth Seals for Application in Rotordynamics,” NASA Conference Publication 2133, proceedings of a workshop held at Texas A&M University, pp. 1–17.
Childs,  D., and Ramsey,  C., 1991, “Seal-Rotordynamic-Coefficient Test Results for a Model SSME ATD-HPFTP Turbine Interstage Seal With and Without a Swirl Brake,” ASME J. Tribol., 113, pp. 198–203.
Kwanka, K., and Nagel, M., 1996, “Experimental Rotordynamic Coefficients of Short Labyrinth Gas Seals,” NASA Conference Publication to be published, proceedings of a workshop held at Texas A&M University, May 6–8.

Figures

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Change in stability of the forward and the backward mode caused by the seal
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Test rig for the identification of dynamic coefficients
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Arrangement of swirl brakes at the entrance of the seal
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See-through labyrinth with honeycomb-stator
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Relative and absolute deviation between measurement and least square fit
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Cross-coupled stiffness and direct damping of a see-through labyrinth seal with 9 cavities
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The effect of swirl brakes on the dynamic coefficients (iDB-i number of swirl brakes on circumference)
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The effect of a honeycomb stator on the dynamic coefficients (HW: honeycomb)
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Exciting force in dependence of whirling frequency and preswirl
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Minimizing the exciting forces with swirl brakes

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