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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Combustion and Fuel

Quantifying Fuel/Air Unmixedness in Premixing Nozzles Using an Acetone Fluorescence Technique

[+] Author and Article Information
J. H. Stufflebeam, D. W. Kendrick, W. A. Sowa

United Technologies Research Center, Aeromechanical, Chemical and Fluid Systems, 411 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06108

T. S. Snyder

Pratt & Whitney, 400 Main Street, East Hartford, CT 06108

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 124(1), 39-45 (Mar 01, 1999) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1396840 History: Received October 01, 1998; Revised March 01, 1999
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Snyder,  T. S., Rosfjord,  T. J., McVey,  J. B., Hu,  A. S., and Schlein,  B. C., 1996, “Emission and Performance of a Lean-Premixed Gas Fuel Injection System for Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 118, pp. 38–45.
Rutar, T., Martin, S. M., Nicol, D. G., Malte, P. C., and Pratt, D. T., 1997, “Effect of Incomplete Premixing on NOx Formation at Temperature and Pressure Conditions of LP Combustion Turbines,” ASME Paper 97-GT-335, presented at the International Gas Turbine & Aeroengine Congress & Exhibition, Orlando, FL, June 2–5.
Barnes,  J. C., and Mellor,  A. M., 1998, “Effects of Unmixedness in Piloted-Lean Premixed Gas-Turbine Combustors,” J. Prop. Power, 14, pp. 967–973.
Barnes,  J. C., and Mellor,  A. M., 1998, “Quantifying Unmixedness in Lean Premixed Combustors Operating at High-Pressure, Fired Conditions,” J. Prop. Power, 14, pp. 974–980.
Fric, T. F., 1992, “Effects of Fuel-Air Unmixedness on NOx Emissions,” AIAA Paper 92-3345, presented at the 28th AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Nashville, TN, July 6–8.
Mongia, R. K., Tomita, E., Hsu, F. K., Talbot, L., and Dibble, R. W., 1996, “Use of an Optical Probe for Time-Resolved in situ Measurement of Local Air-to-Fuel Ratio and Extent of Fuel Mixing with Applications to Low NOx Emissions in Premixed Gas Turbines,” presented at the 26th Symposium (International) on Combustion, Napoli, Italy, pp. 2749–2755.
Lee,  J. G., and Santavicca,  D. A., 1997, “Fiber-Optic Probe for Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of the Fuel-Air Distribution in Gas-Turbine Combustors,” J. Prop. Power 13, pp. 384–387.
Frazier, T. R., Foglesong, R. E., Coverdill, R. E., Peters, J. E., and Lucht, R. P., 1998, “An Experimental Investigation of Fuel/Air Mixing in an Optically Accessible Axial Premixer,” AIAA Paper 98-3543, presented at the 34th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Cleveland, OH, July 13–15.
Kendrick, D. W., Anderson, T. J., Sowa, W. A., and Snyder, T. S., 1998, “Acoustic Sensitivities of Lean-Premixed Fuel Injectors in a Single Nozzle Rig,” ASME Paper 98-GT-382, Presented at the International Gas Turbine & Aeroengine Congress & Exhibition, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2–5.
Lozano,  A., Yip,  B., and Hanson,  R. K., 1992, “Acetone: A Tracer for Concentration Measurements in Gaseous Flows by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Exp. Fluids, 13, pp. 369–376.
Hautman, D. J., Haas, R. J., and Chiappetta, L., 1991, “Transverse Gaseous Injection into Subsonic Air Flows,” AIAA Paper 91-0576, Presented at the 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, NV, Jan. 7–10.
Keller, J. O., and Barr, P. K., 1996, “Premixed Combustion in a Periodic Flow Field,” Unsteady Combustion, F. Culick, M. N. Heitor, and J. H. Whitelaw, eds., Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
Raun,  R. L., Beckstead,  M. W., Finlinson,  J. C., and Brooks,  K. P., 1993, “A Review of Rijke Burners and Related Devices,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 19, pp. 313–364.

Figures

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Mixing efficiency over range of fuel momentum ratio for two different rCB/rexit
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F/A distribution 6 mm from exit plane of premixing nozzle with 15(8/7) main fuel orifice array for several levels of centerline pilot
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Emission results from SNR for rCB/rexit=0.47 and 15(8/7) fuel tubes
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Acoustic data from combustion tests of baseline and 15(8/7) orifice arrays with rCB/rexit=0.47 in the SNR
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Global Rayleigh indexes for both injection schemes at 15.6 atm, and five percent CL piloting
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Main fuel distribution orifice arrays evaluated in mixing studies. When inserted in the nozzle, the downstream end of the fuel tube is to the right.
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Air flow facility for acetone PLIF measurements. Laser sheet is 6 mm from nozzle exit plane. R, regulator; V, venturi; Rm, rotameter; P, pressure transducer; T, thermocouple.
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Acetone PLIF experimental apparatus
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Normalized F/A distribution 6 mm from exit plane for different levels of fuel penetration, rCB/rexit=0.60
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Mixing efficiency over range of fuel momentum ratios
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Normalized F/A distribution 6 mm from exit plane for different fuel distributions along the inlet slot length, rCB/rexit=0.47

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