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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

A Kinetic Investigation of the Role of Changes in the Composition of Natural Gas in Engine Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
E. B. Khalil, G. A. Karim

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Canada

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 124(2), 404-411 (Mar 26, 2002) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1445438 History: Received October 01, 1998; Revised June 01, 2001; Online March 26, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Turner, S. H., and Weaver, C. S., 1994, “Dual Fuel Natural Gas/Diesel Engines Technology, Performance and Emissions,” Gas Research Institute Technical Report No. 0094.
Vilmar, A., and Harald, V., 1996, “The Influence of Natural Gas Composition on Ignition in a Direct Injection Gas Engine Using Hot Surface Assisted Compression Ignition,” SAE Paper No. 961934.
Higgin, R., and William, A., 1969, “A Shock Tube Investigation of the Ignition of Lean Methane and n-Butane Mixtures With Oxygen,” 12th Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, p. 579.
Lifshitz,  A., Scheller,  K., Burcat,  A., and Skinner,  G. B., 1971, “Shock-Tube Investigation of Ignition in Methane-Oxygen-Argon Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 16, p. 311.
Crossley,  R., Dorko,  E., Scheller,  K., and Burcat,  A., 1972, “The Effect of Higher Alkanes on the Ignition of Methane-Oxygen-Argon Mixtures in Shock Waves,” Combust. Flame, 19, p. 373.
Frennklach,  M., and Bornside,  E., 1984, “Shock-Initiated Ignition in Propane Mixtures,” Combust. Flame, 56, pp. 1–27.
Westbrook,  C. K., 1979, “An Analytical Study of the Shock Tube Ignition of Mixtures of Methane and Ethane,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 20, pp. 5–17.
Khalil, E., Samuel, P., and Karim, G. A., 1996, “An Analytical Examination of the Chemical Kinetics of the Combustion of N-Heptane-Methane Air Mixtures,” SAE Paper No. 961932.
Axelsson, E. I., Brezinsky, K., Dryer, F. L., Pitz, W. J., and Westbrook, C. K., 1988, “Chemical Kinetic Modelling of the Oxidation of Large Alkane Fuels: N-Octane and Iso-Octane,” Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, p. 783.
Westbrook, C. K., and Pitz, W. J., 1988, “Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Autoignition Chemistry,” Transaction of SAE, 96 , Section 7, p. 559.
Westbrook, C. K., and Pitz, W. J., 1991, “Numerical Modeling of Combustion of Complex Hydrocarbon Fuels,” Numerical Approaches to Combustion Modeling (Vol. 135, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics), AIAA, Washington, DC, p. 57.
Westbrook, C. K., 1990–1992, personal communications.
Karim, G. A., Hanafi, A., and Zhou, G., 1992, “A Kinetic Investigation of the Oxidation of Low Heating Value Fuel Mixtures of Methane and Diluents,” Proceedings of the 15th Annual ASME/ETCE, Houston, TX, ASME, New York.
Samuel, P., 1994, “Computational and Experimental Investigation of Ignition and Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Within Homogeneous Environments of Fuel and Air,” Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Calgary.
Ciezk,  H., and Adomeit,  G., 1993, “Shock-Tube Investigation of Self-Ignition of n-Heptane-Air Mixtures Under Engine Relevant Conditions,” Combust. Flame, 93, p. 421.
Griffiths,  J. F., 1995, “Reduced Kinetic Models and Their Application to Practical Combustion Systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., N. A. Chigier, ed., 21, Nov., p. 27.
Westbrook, C. K., and Pitz, W. J., 1986, “Kinetic Modelling of Autoignition of Higher Hydrocarbons: n-Heptane, N-Octane and iso-Octane,” Complex Chemical Reaction Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 45–62.
Westbrook,  C. K., Pitz,  W. J., Thornton,  M., and Malte,  P. C., 1988, “A Kinetic Modelling of n-Pentane Oxidation in a Well-Stirred Reactor,” Combust. Flame, 72, pp. 45–62.
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Khalil, E., 1998, “Modelling the Chemical Kinetics of Combustion of Higher Hydrocarbon Fuels in Air,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Calgary.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
The variations of calculated temperature with reaction time for a variety of n-heptane-methane mixtures in air in an adiabatic constant volume process, Ti=800 K,Pi=2.8 MPa, and φ=1.0, dotted lines indicates results with the reduced scheme
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of the calculated delay and total combustion times with n-heptane percentage in n-heptane-methane fuel mixture for two initial temperatures in an adiabatic constant volume process Pi=2.8 MPa and total φ=1.0
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of calculated OH and HO2 concentrations with time for a variety of n-heptane-methane mixtures in air in an adiabatic constant volume process with Ti=800 K,Pi=2.8 MPa and total φ=1.0
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of the rates of selected reactions with time for methane and a fuel mixture (99.9 percent methane and 0.1 percent n-heptane) in air in an adiabatic constant volume process with Ti=800 K,Pi=2.8 MPa and total φ=1.0
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of the rates of selected reactions with combustion temperature for methane and a fuel mixture (99.9 percent methane and 0.1 percent n-heptane) in air in an adiabatic constant volume process with Ti=800 K,Pi=2.8 MPa and total φ=1.0
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of the calculated combustion times with n-heptane percentage in various binary mixtures of n-heptane in an adiabatic constant volume process with Ti=800 K,Pi=2.8 MPa and total φ=1.0
Grahic Jump Location
Variations with time of the calculated temperature of natural gas “A” of Table 1 for various initial temperatures. The corresponding variations for methane at an initial temperature of 800 K are shown; Pi=2.8 MPa
Grahic Jump Location
Variation with time of the normalized concentration of the fuel and for the non-methane components
Grahic Jump Location
Variation in the temperature with time for a natural gas<sample “9,” and for a sample having double the concentration of C4<C5 and C6+
Grahic Jump Location
Variations with time of the relative concentrations of the various n-alkanes components of natural gas “B” in an adiabatic constant volume process. Ti=760 K,Pi=6.26 MPa and total φ=0.583
Grahic Jump Location
Variation in the temperature-time development for the different natural gas samples listed in Table 2

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