TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Combustion and Fuels

Analysis of the Effects of Water Injection on the Performance of a Gas Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Mathioudakis

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluids Section, Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines, National Technical University of Athens, P.O. Box 64069, 15710 Athens, Greece

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 124(3), 489-495 (Jun 19, 2002) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1451755 History: Received November 01, 2000; Revised May 01, 2001; Online June 19, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Shaw,  H., 1974, “The Effects of Water, Pressure, and Equivalence Ratio on Nitric Oxide Production in Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 96, pp. 240–246.
Koch,  H., and Felix,  P., 1977, “Exhaust Gas Emissions of Brown Boveri Gas Turbines,” Brown Boveri Rev., 64, Jan., pp. 27–33.
Schetter, B., 1993, “Gas Turbine Combustion and Emission Control,” Combined Cycles for Power Plants, Von Karman Institute, Lecture Series 1993–08.
Lefebvre,  A. H., 1995, “The Role of Fuel Preparation in Low Emission Combustion,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 117, pp. 617–654.
Liever, P. A., Smith, C. E., Myers, G. D., Hernandez, L., Griffith, T. 1998, “CFD Assessment of a Wet, Low-NOx Combustion System for a 3MW-Class Industrial Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper 98-GT-292.
Walsh, P. P., and Fletcher, P., 1998, Gas Turbine Performance, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK.
Kreitmeier,  F., Frutschi,  H. U., and Vogel,  M., 1992, “Economic Evaluation of Methods for Reducing NOx Emissions of Gas Turbines and Combined Cycle Plants,” ABB Rev., 1/92, pp. 29–36.
Cloyd, S. T., and Harris, A. J., 1995, “Gas Turbine Performance—New Application and Test Correction Curves,” ASME Paper 95-GT-167.
Camporeale, S. M., and Fortunato, B., 2000, Aero-Thermodynamic Simulation of a Double Shaft Industrial Evaporative Gas Turbine, ASME Paper 2000-GT-0171.
Jordal K., and Torisson T., 2000, “Comparison of Gas Turbine Cooling With Dry Air, Humidified Air and Steam,” ASME Paper 2000-GT-0169.
ISO 2314, 1989, Gas Turbine Acceptance Tests.
Mathioudakis,  K., Stamatis,  A., Tsalavoutas,  A., and Aretaks,  N., 2000, “Performance Analysis of Industrial Gas Turbines for Engine Condition Monitoring,” Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 215, Mar., pp. 173–184.
Hensley, R. V., 1952, “Theoretical Performance of an Axial-Flow Compressor in a Gas Turbine Engine Operating With Inlet Water Injection,” NACA TN 2673.
Gu, Y. G., and Palmer, J. R., 1986, “A Mathematical Model for Computing the Effects of Air Humidity, Fuel Composition and Gas Dissociation on Gas Turbine Performance and Its Application,” ASME Paper 86-GT-114.
Bird, J., and Grabe, W., 1991, “Humidity Effects on Gas Turbine Performance,” ASME Paper 91-GT-329.
AGARD-AR-332, 1995, “Recommended Practices for the Assessment of the effects of Atmospheric Water Ingestion on the Performance and Operability of Gas Turbines Engines,” Sept.


Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of the gas turbine layout studied
Grahic Jump Location
Measured quantities on the single shaft gas turbine
Grahic Jump Location
Measured pressure ratio versus pressure ratio predicted by Eq. (2)
Grahic Jump Location
Pressure ratio estimated using dry gas properties (○) and properties altered by water injection (•). Base load w≅1.2.
Grahic Jump Location
Fuel/air ratio for different TIT and w values. Base load.
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of measured fuel air ratio changes to values predicted by Eq. (4)
Grahic Jump Location
Dependence of power output on turbine inlet temperature, for dry and wet operation
Grahic Jump Location
Change in output power as a function of water/fuel ratio. Points from test data, line form Eq. (5) with Δṁ/ṁ=0. Base load.
Grahic Jump Location
Operation in the region where IGVs are activated. 75 percent load.
Grahic Jump Location
Efficiency decrease due to water injection. Points from test data and line from Eq. (8).
Grahic Jump Location
Gas turbine specific power versus pressure ratio for constant TIT. The “flat” region is indicated.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of the ratio of turbine power to output power, over a range of operating loads



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In