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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Manufacturing, Materials, and Metallurgy

Metallurgical Considerations for Life Assessment and the Safe Refurbishment and Requalification of Gas Turbine Blades

[+] Author and Article Information
J. A. Daleo, K. A. Ellison, D. H. Boone

BWD Turbines Ltd., 1-601 Tradewind Drive, Ancaster, Ontario L9G 4V5, Canada

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 124(3), 571-579 (Jun 19, 2002) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1455638 History: Received November 01, 1999; Revised February 01, 2000; Online June 19, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
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References

Daleo, J. A., and Boone, D. H., 1997, “Failure Mechanisms of Coating Systems Applied to Advanced Turbine Components,”ASME Paper 97-GT-486.
Rairden, III, J. R., 1982, U.S. Patent, Re. 30,995, reissued July 13.
Ellison, K. A., Daleo, J. A., and Boone, D. H., 1998, “Metallurgical Temperature Estimates Based on Inter-diffusion Between CoCrAlY Overlay Coatings and a Directionally Solidified Nickel-Base Superalloy Substrate,” Proceedings of the 6th Liege Conference, Vol. 5, Part III, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, p. 1523.
Wells, C., 1996, “Eddy Current Measurements of the In-Service Degradation of the GT29PLUS Coating System On GTD111 Turbine Blades,” Final Report of Project GE96-20, Report number SIW-96-025, Structural Integrity Associates.
Daleo, J. A., and Boone, D. H., 1996, “Metallurgical Evaluation Techniques in Gas Turbine Failure Analysis and Life Assessment,” Failures 96, Risk, Economy and Safety, Failure Minimization and Analysis, R. K. Penny, ed., A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 187–201.
Tien, J. K., and Caulfield, T., eds., 1989, Superalloys, Supercomposites and Superceramics, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, p. 138.
ASM Metals Reference Book, 2nd Ed., 1983, ASM, Metals Park, OH, p. 415.
Beddoes,  J. C., and Wallace,  W., 1980, “Heat Treatment of Hot Isostatically Processed IN-738 Investment Castings,” Metallography, 13, pp. 185–194.
Daleo,  J. A., Ellison,  K. A., and Woodford,  D. A., 1999, “Application of Stress Relaxation Testing in Metallurgical Life Assessment Evaluations of GTD111 Alloy Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 121, pp. 129–137.
Soderberg,  C. R., 1936, “The Interpretation of Creep Tests for Machine Design,” Trans. ASME, 58, p. 733.
Oding, I. A., et al., 1959, Creep and Stress Relaxation in Metals, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (English translation by A. J. Kennedy, Oliver and Boyd Ltd.).
Lee,  D., and Hart,  E. W., 1971, “Stress Relaxation and Mechanical Behavior of Metals,” Metall. Trans., 2, pp. 1245–1248.
Woodford, D. R., Van Steele, K., Amberg, K., and Stiles, D., 1992, “Creep Strength Evaluation for IN 738 Based on Stress Relaxation,” Superalloys 1992, S. D. Antolovich et al., eds., The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, pp. 657–664.
Woodford,  D. A., 1993, “Test Methods for Accelerated Development, Design and Life Assessment of High Temperature Materials,” Mater. Des., 14, No. 4, pp. 231–242.
Woodford, D. A., and Daleo J. A., 1999, “Life Assessment of Hot Section Gas Turbine Components,” Proceedings of a conference held at Heriot Watt University, R. Townsend et al., eds., Edinburgh, UK, Oct. 5–7, IOM Communications, London, pp. 293–310.
Robinson,  E. L., 1952, “Effects of Temperature Variations on the Long Time Rupture Strength of Steels,” Trans. ASME, 74, pp. 777–781.
Monkman,  F. C., and Grant,  N. J., 1956, “An Empirical Relationship Between Rupture Life and Minimum Creep Rate in Creep Rupture Tests,” Proc. ASTM, 56, p. 593.
Daleo,  J. A., and Wilson,  J. R., 1998, “GTD111 Alloy Material Study,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 121, pp. 375–382.
Larson,  F. R., and Miller,  J., 1952, “Time-Temperature Relationships for Rupture and Creep Stresses,” Trans. ASME, 74, p. 765.
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Woodford, D. R., Daleo, J. A., and Wilson, J. R., 1996, “Analysis of Service Run Ruston TB5000 Components,” 96Mpa/W&D01, Materials Performance Analysis, Wilson & Daleo, Inc., internal report.
Daniels, A., Bales, M., Bishop, C., Becker, E., and Van Dijk, M., “Infrared Testing of Turbine Blades and Vanes Using Both Transmission and Reflective Methodologies,” presented at the 1995 ASNT Quality Testing Show, Dallas, TX.
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Figures

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A photomicrograph illustrating the microstructure of a service-run aluminized CoCrAlY coating applied to a directionally solidified GTD111 alloy component
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A photomicrograph of a service-run aluminized CoCrAlY coating applied to a DS GTD111 alloy component illustrating data phase depletion and inter-diffusion with the base alloy
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Metallurgical temperature estimates of a service exposed GE MS7001F first-stage turbine blade based on inter-diffusion rates between the aluminized CoCrAlY overlay coating and the directionally solidified GTD111 base alloy
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A photograph illustrating irreversible stripping damage caused to a pin fin array
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A scanning electron micrograph of DS GTD111 alloy in the standard heat-treated condition illustrating the duplex γ precipitate microstructure and the grain boundary carbide morphology
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A scanning electron micrograph of DS GTD111 alloy after 18,000 hours of service
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A scanning electron micrograph of an IN-738LC turbine blade processed through the standard reheat treatment cycle. Note that the microstructure was not restored to its original condition.
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A scanning electron micrograph of an IN-738LC turbine blade not correctly processed through the modified high-temperature reheat treatment cycle
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A photomicrograph illustrating melting of the inter-diffusion zone of an aluminide coated IN-738LC substrate
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Photomicrographs illustrating re-crystallization of the surface grains observed in the root form of a reheat treated DS GTD111 alloy blade
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A plot comparing strain rate data measured from polycrystalline GTD111 alloy samples in different conditions at 850°C and 0.8 percent total strain
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A plot illustrating the drop in creep rate properties measured in a polycrystalline GTD111 alloy blade airfoil in terms of temperature capability of “new” material in the standard heat treated condition
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A plot of stress versus estimated creep rupture life of polycrystalline GTD111 material in the standard heat treated condition based on 5 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent failure elongation
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A plot comparing a Larson-Miller curve created from estimated creep rupture life based on strain rate to failure elongation, to published GTD111 creep rupture data
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A sampling of a series of transmission mode thermal inertia of images of a CF6 turbine blade

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