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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Exhaust Emission Deterioration and Combustion Chamber Deposit Composition Over the Life Cycle of Small Utility Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Caceres, J. R. Reisel

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0784

A. Sklyarov

Advanced Analysis Facility, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3209 N. Maryland Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53211

A. Poehlman

Briggs and Stratton Corporation, Milwaukee, WI 53201-0702

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 125(1), 358-364 (Dec 27, 2002) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1496773 History: Received August 23, 2000; Revised January 28, 2002; Online December 27, 2002
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Gabele, P., 1997, “Emissions From 4-Cycle Walk-Behind-Mover Engines: Test Cycle Effects,” SAE Paper No. 972793.
Haidar, H. A., and Heywood, J. B., 1997, “Combustion Chamber Deposits Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions From a Spark-Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 972887.
Valdatoros, T. H., Wong, V. W., and Heywood, J. B., 1991, “Fuel Additive Effects on Deposit Build-up and Engine Operating Characteristics,” Symposium on Fuel Composition/Deposit Tendencies, American Chemical Society, 36 (1).
Wagner, R. W., 1993, “The Effects of Fuel Composition and Deposit Control Additives on Combustion Chamber Deposits,” Proceedings of the CRC Workshop on Combustion Chamber Deposits, Nov.
Bower, S. L., Litzinger, L. A., and Frottier, V., 1993, “The Effect of Fuel Composition and Engine Deposits on Emissions from a Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 932707.
SAE J1088 Recommended Practice, 1993, test procedure for the measurement of gaseous exhaust emissions from small utility engines.
Federal Register, 1995, “Control of Air Pollution; Emission Standards for New Non-road Spark-Ignited Engines at or Below 19 Kilowatts,” Fed. Reg. 40 CFR Parts 9 and 90, Final Rule, 60 (127), July 3.
Siegl, W. O., and Zinbo, M., 1985, “On The Chemical Composition and Origin of Engine Deposits” Chemistry of Engine Deposits, Plenum Press, New York.
Harpster, M. O., Jr., Matas, S. E., Fry, J. H., and Litzinger, T. A., 1995, “An Experimental Study of Fuel Composition and Combustion Chamber Deposit Effects on Emissions From a Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 950740.
Reisel,  J. R., Kellner,  T. A., and Neusen,  K. F., 2000, “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions in Small Utility Engines,” J. Air Waste Manag Assoc., 50, pp. 522–528.
Kalghatgi, G., 1990, “Deposits in Gasoline Engines—A Literature Review,” SAE Paper No. 902105.
Daly, D. T., Bannon, S., Fog, D., and Harold, S., 1994, “Mechanisms of Combustion Chamber Deposit Formation,” SAE Paper No. 941889.
Lepperhoff, G., and Houben, M., 1993, “Mechanisms of Deposit Formation in Internal Combustion Engines and Heat Exchangers,” SAE Paper No. 931032.
Solum,  M., Pugmire,  R. J., and Grant,  D. M., 1989, “13C Solid State NMR of Argonne Premium Coals,” Energy Fuels, 3, pp. 187–193.
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Kim, P., Cheng, S., and Majorski, S., 1991, “Engine Combustion Chamber Deposits: Fuel Effects and Mechanisms of Formation,” SAE Paper No. 912379.
Adams, K. M., and Baker, R. E., 1985 “Effects of Combustion Chamber Deposit Location and Composition,” Chemistry of Engine Deposits, Plenum Press, New York.

Figures

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Normalized measurements of HC+NOx emissions from the in-laboratory Model 11 (overhead-valve) engines
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Average fraction of the HC and NOx in the total HC+NOx emissions measurements for the laboratory-test Model 11 and Model 12 engines
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Averaged normalized HC+NOx emissions measurements for both the laboratory-test and field-test Model 11 engines
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Average normalized HC+NOx emissions measurements for both laboratory-test and field-test Model 12 engines
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Normalized measurements of CO emissions from the in-laboratory Model 11 (overhead-valve) engines
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Average percentages of various hydrocarbon species in the exhaust of the Model 11 and Model 12 engines at 200 hours, as measured by FTIR
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Normalized power at the emissions test points during the life cycle of the in-laboratory engines
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Typical dual-gas TGA/DTA of a Model 11 engine CCD under argon and air
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SEM micrograph of Zone 2 of a CCD
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SEM micrograph of Zone 1 of a CCD

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