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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Combustion in Gas Fueled Compression: Ignition Engines of the Dual Fuel Type

[+] Author and Article Information
G. A. Karim

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Canadae-mail: karim@enme.ucalgary.ca

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 125(3), 827-836 (Aug 15, 2003) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1581894 History: Received November 01, 2001; Revised July 01, 2002; Online August 15, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Turner, S. H., and Wearer, C. S., 1994, “Dual Fuel Natural Gas/Diesel Engines,” Gas Research Institute, No. GRI-94/0094.
Karim, G. A., 1987, “The Dual Fuel Engine” in Robert L. Evans (Ed) “Automotive Engine Alternatives,” Plenum Press, N.Y.
Karim, G. A., and Amoozegar, N., 1983, “Determination of the Performance of a Dual Fuel Diesel Engine With the Addition of Various Liquid Fuels to the Intake Charge,” S.A.E. Paper No. 830265.
Danyluk, P. R., 1993, “Development of a High Output Dual Fuel Engine,” ASME Paper No: 93-ICE-20.
Hill, P. G., and Douville, B., 1998, “Analysis of Combustion in Diesel Engines Fuelled by Directly Injected Natural Gas,” ASME Paper No. ICE 30-3.
Wong, Y., and Karim, G. A., 2000, “A Kinetic Examination of the Effects of Recycled Exhaust Gases on the Autoignition of Homogeneous N-Heptane-Air Mixtures in Engines,” S.A.E. No. F1236.
Liu,  Z., and Karim,  G. A., 1998, “An Examination of the Ignition Delay Period in Gas Fueled Diesel Engines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 120, pp. 225–231.
Badr,  O., Karim,  G. A., and Liu,  B., 1998, “An Examination of the Flame Spread Limits in a Dual Fuel Engine,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 19, pp. 1071–1080.
Karim, G. A., Kibriya, M. G., Lapucha, R., and Wierzba, I., 1988, “Examination of the Combustion of a Fuel Jet in a Homogeneously Pre-Mixed Lean Fuel-Air Stream,” S.A.E. Paper No. 881662.
Wierzba,  P., Karim,  G. A., and Wierzba,  I., 1992, “An Analytical Examination of the Combustion of a Turbulent Fuel in an Environment Containing Premixed Fuel or a Diluent and Air,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 117, pp. 234–239.
Khalil,  E. B., and Karim,  G. A., 2002, “A Kinetic Investigation of the Role of Changes in Composition of Natural Gas in Engine Applications,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines and Power, 124, pp. 404–411.
Liu, Z., and Karim, G. A., 1996, “An Examination of the Role of Residual Gases in the Combustion Processes of Motored Engines Fuelled With Gaseous Fuels,” S.A.E. Paper No. 961081.
Downs,  D., Walsh,  A. D., and Wheeler,  R. W., 1951, “A Study of the Reactions That Lead to Knock in the Spark Ignition Engine,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 243, pp. 463–524.
Samuel, P., and Karim, G. A., 1994, “An Analysis of Fuel Droplets Ignition and Combustion Within Homogeneous Mixtures of Fuel and Air,” SAE Paper No. 940901.
Karim, G. A., Liu, Z., and Jones, W., 1993, “Exhaust Emissions From Dual Fuel Engines at Light Load,” S.A.E. Paper No. 932822.
Karim, G. A., 1991, “An Examination of Some Measures for Improving the Performance of Gas Fuelled Diesel Engines at Light Load,” S.A.E. Paper No. 912366, S.A.E. Transactions 1991.
Liu,  Z., and Karim,  G. A., 1997, “Simulation of the Combustion Processes in Gas Fuelled Diesel Engines,” Proceedings—Inst. of Mech. Engineers, J. of Power and Energy,211, pp. 159–171.
Karim, G. A., and Lui, Z., 1992, “A Prediction Model of Knock in Dual Fuel Engines,” S.A.E. Paper No. 921550, S.A.E. Transactions 1992.
Gunea, C., Razavi, M. R., and Karim, G. A., 1998, “The Effects of Pilot Fuel Quality on Dual Fuel Engine Ignition Delay,” SAE Paper No. 982453.
Khalil, E., Samuel, P., and Karim, G. A., 1996, “An Analytical Examination of the Chemical Kinetics of the Combustion of N-Heptane-Methane Air Mixtures,” S.A.E. Paper No. 961932.

Figures

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Variations of the ignition point with total equivalence ratio for different fuels at constant pilot quantity. The corresponding diesel operation is shown.
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The variation of the calculated temperature at TDC with equivalence ratio in the absence of pilot injection for three different fuels
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Variations in the calculated maximum heat transfer rate with equivalence ratio in the absence of pilot fuel for hydrogen, methane, and propane admissions
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Variation of the calculated maximum energy release rate with equivalence ratio in the absence of pilot injection for propane, methane, and hydrogen operation
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Variations of the calculated charge temperature at ignition with the admission of nitrogen and carbon dioxide in a diesel engine with a fixed pilot quantity
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Variations in the calculated temperature of a methane-air charge at different stages of compression and expansion in the absence pilot injection, with changes in equivalence ratio, Ti=323 K
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Schematic representation of the different components of the combustion energy release rate in a dual fuel engine for a heavy load condition
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Schematic representation of the different components of combustion energy release rate in a dual fuel engine for a light load condition
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Variations in the effective energy release rates with crank angle for different total equivalence ratios at a constant pilot quantity of 0.227 kg/h, for methane operation
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Variations of the calculated ignition delay and total combustion times with the molar fraction of n-heptane in heptane-methane stoichiometric mixtures in air for two initial temperatures under adiabatic constant volume conditions, Pi=2.8 MPa
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Calculated temporal variations of pressure for different stoichiometric n-heptane methane mixtures with air for adiabatic constant volume reaction, Ti=800 K and Pi=2.8 MPa
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Variations of the calculated minimum compression ratio for regular auto-ignition of different methane–air mixtures in a motored engine. The experimental data of Downs et al. 13 are shown.
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Variations of the suitably modified ignition delay with total equivalence ratio for different fuels
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Correlation of the observed lean operational limits in a dual fuel engine with the corresponding quiescent limits based on pilot combustion temperatures
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Variation of the brake specific energy consumption (BSHC) for a dual fuel engine operating on different fuels at constant pilot quantity
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Variations in the point of ignition with total equivalence ratio for different cetane number pilots with methane-nitrogen fuel mixtures
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Variations of the exhaust concentration of unreacted methane with the intake gas equivalence ratio at a constant pilot quantity with methane operation
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Variation of the unconverted methane in the exhaust gas of a dual fuel engine with methane addition for different pilot quantities
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Variation in the exhaust concentration of carbon monoxide with changes in the gas equivalence ratio for a constant pilot quantity with methane operation
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Logrithmic variations of the exhaust concentration of carbon monoxide with the total equivalence ratio for different pilot quantities with methane operation
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Variation of the volumetric exhaust concentration (log scale) of CO with total equivalence ratio at a constant pilot quantity with methane operation for three different intake mixture temperatures
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Variations in the exhaust concentration of oxides of nitrogen with total equivalence ratio for different pilot quantities with methane operation

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