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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Combustion and Fuels

Low NOx Combustion for Liquid Fuels: Atmospheric Pressure Experiments Using a Staged Prevaporizer-Premixer

[+] Author and Article Information
J. C. Y. Lee, P. C. Malte

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352600, Seattle, WA 98195-2600

M. A. Benjamin

Gas Turbine Fuel System Division, Parker Hannifin Corporation, 9200 Tyler Boulevard, Mentor, OH 44060

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 125(4), 861-871 (Nov 18, 2003) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1584476 History: Received December 01, 2000; Revised March 01, 2001; Online November 18, 2003
Copyright © 2003 by ASME
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References

Lee, J. C. Y., and Malte, P. C., 2000, “Staged Prevaporizer-Premixer,” U.S. Patent No. 6,174,160B1, Jan. 16, 2001.
Capehart, S. A., Lee, J. C. Y., Williams, J. T., and Malte, P. C., 1997, “Effect of Fuel Composition on NOx Formation in Lean Premixed Prevaporized Combustion,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-336.
Lefebvre, A. H., 1989, Atomization and Sprays, Taylor & Francis, Bristol, PA.
Lee, J. C. Y., Malte, P. C., and Nicol, D. G., 1999, “NOx as a Function of Fuel Type: C1-to-C16 Hydrocarbons and Methanol,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-270.
Mansour, A., Benjamin, M. A., Straub, D. L., and Richards, G. A., 2000, “Application of Macrolamination Technology to Lean, Premix Combustion,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0115.
Tsuboi,  T., Inomata,  K., Tsunoda,  Y., Isobe,  A., and Nagaya,  K., 1985, “Light Absorption by Hydrocarbon Molecules at 3.392 □ of He-Ne Laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 24, No. 1, pp. 8–13.
Dibble, R. W., 1999, personal communication, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Mongia, R. K., 1998, “Optical Probe for Measuring the Extent of Air and Fuel Mixing in Lean Premixed Combustors and the Effect of Air and Fuel Mixing on Combustor Performance,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
Perrin,  M. Y., and Hartmann,  J. M., 1989, “High Temperature Absorption of the 3.39 □m He-Ne Laser Line by Methane,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., 42(6), pp. 459–464.
Yoshiyama,  S., Hamamoto,  Y., Tomita,  E., and Minami,  K., 1996, “Measurement of Hydrocarbon Fuel Concentration by Means of Infrared Absorption Technique with 3.39 □m He-Ne Laser,” JSAE Review, 17 , pp. 339–345.
Lee, J. C. Y., 2000, “Reduction of NOx Emission for Lean Prevaporized-Premixed Combustors,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Steele,  R. C., Malte,  P. C., Nicol,  D. G., and Kramlich,  J. C., 1995, “NOx and N2 O in Lean-Premixed Jet-Stirred Flames,” Combust. Flame, 100(3), pp. 440–449.
Göttgens, J., Mauss, F., and Peters, N., 1992, “Analytical Approximations of Burning Velocities and Flame Thicknesses of Lean Hydrogen, Methane, Ethylene, Ethane, Acetylene and Propane Flames,” Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 129–135.
Abraham, J., Williams, F. A., and Bracco, F. V., 1985, “A Discussion of Turbulent Flame Structure in Premixed Charges,” Engine Combustion Analysis: New Approaches, P-156, SAE, Warrendale, PA, pp. 27–43.
Rutar, T., Malte, P. C., and Kramlich, J. C., 2000, “Investigation of NOx and CO Formation in Lean Premixed, Methane-Air, High-Intensity, Confined Flames at Elevated Pressures,” Twenty-Eighth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
Rutar, T., and Malte, P. C., 2001, “NOx Formation in High-Pressure Jet-Stirred Reactors With Significance to Lean-Premixed Combustion Turbines,” paper submitted to ASME Turbo Expo 2001.
Nicol, D. G., 1995, “A Chemical Kinetic and Numerical Study of NOx and Pollutant Formation in Low-Emission Combustion,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Steele,  R. C., Tonouchi,  J. H., Nicol,  D. G., Horning,  D. C., Malte,  P. C., and Pratt,  D. T., 1998, “Characterization of NOx,N2O, and CO for Lean-Premixed Combustion in a High-Pressure Jet-Stirred Reactor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 120, pp. 303–310.
Bengtsson,  K. U. M., Benz,  P., Schaeren,  R., and Frouzakis,  C. E., 1998, “NyOx Formation in Lean Premixed Combustion of Methane in a High-Pressure Jet-Stirred Reactor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 27 , pp. 1393–1401.
Smith, G. P., Golden, D. M., Frenklach, M., Moriarty, N. W., Eiteneer, B., Goldenberg, M., Bowman, C. T., Hanson, R., Song, S., Gardiner, W. C. Jr., Lissianski, V., and Qin, Z., 1999, GRI-Mechanism 3.0, http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech.
Miller,  J. A., and Bowman,  C. T., 1989, “Mechanism and Modeling of Nitrogen Chemistry in Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 15, pp. 287–338.

Figures

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Schematic drawing of the atmospheric pressure JSR, of 15.8 cm3 volume, with the staged prevaporizing-premixing injector
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Schematic diagram of the laser absorption system
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Effect of temperature on the transmission of the 3.39 μm He-Ne laser for methane/air and propane/air mixtures at 1 Atm
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Effect of temperature and air split on the percent standard deviation in the laser transmission for the outlet stream of the SPP with natural gas-air mixture at ϕ=0.68. Legend: First stage airflow rate divided by the second stage airflow rate, and nominal first stage temperature in Kelvin. Long second stage used.
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Effect of temperature and air split on the percent standard deviation in the laser transmission for the outlet stream of the SPP with No. 2 low sulfur diesel fuel-air mixture at ϕ=0.68. Legend: First stage airflow rate divided by the second stage airflow rate, and nominal first stage temperature in Kelvin. Long second stage used.
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Standard deviation in transmission versus mean transmission. Long second stage for the SPP.
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Effect of SPP temperatures and air split on NOx for natural gas-firing of the JSR. Legend: First stage airflow rate divided by the second stage airflow rate and nominal first stage temperature in Kelvin. Long second stage used.
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Effect of fuel type on NOx JSR combustion temperature of 1790 K and residence time of 2.3±0.1 ms. The SPP conditions are outlet temperature of 623 K, and first to second stage airflow ratio of 1.
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Same conditions as Fig. 8, except the fuel NOx formed through 100% conversion of FBN is deducted for the diesel fuels
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Effect of fuel type on CO for JSR combustion temperature of 1790 K and residence time of 2.3±0.1 ms. The SPP conditions are outlet temperature of 623 K, and first to second stage airflow ratio of 1.

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