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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: IGTI Scholar Lecture

Millimeter-Scale, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Gas Turbine Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Alan H. Epstein

Gas Turbine Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 01239e-mail: Epstein@mit.edu

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 126(2), 205-226 (Jun 07, 2004) (22 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1739245 History: Received October 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online June 07, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Simple cycle gas turbine performance with H2 fuel
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Critical temperature change to cause fracture via thermal shock
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H2 demo engine with conduction-cooled turbine constructed from six silicon wafers
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Cutaway H2 demo gas turbine chip
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Si wafer of radial inflow turbine stages
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A 4:1 pressure ratio, 4 mm rotor dia radial inflow turbine stage
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Simplified processing steps to produce the turbine in Fig. 6 in a wafer stack. (Figure courtesy of N. Miki.)
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Complete, five-layer turbine “stack” including bearings and fluid plumbing; (a) conceptual cross-section, (b) electron microscope image of cross-section
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Calculated sensitivity of two-dimensional airfoil loss with Reynolds number, 9
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A 500 m/s tip speed, 8 mm dia. centrifugal engine compressor
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Sensitivity of compressor pressure rise to tip clearance (% span)
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The influence of heat addition on compressor performance (pressure ratio is π, the subscript “ad” refers to the adiabatic condition)
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Variation of engine compressor polytropic efficiency with size
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Silicon engine radial inflow turbine inside annular combustor; the flow passages in the NGV’s are for bearing and balance air
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Design space for Si H2 microcombustor
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Measured performance of 0.2 cc, Si microcombustors using H2 fuel
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Measured microcombustor performance as a function of Damkohler number
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Gas bearing radial unit load capacity variation with speed. (Figure courtesy of L. Liu.)
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Gas journal bearing model
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Transcritical response of the micro-journal gas bearing in Fig. 6. (Figure courtesy of C. J. Teo.)
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Geometry of (a) hydrodynamic and (b) hydrostatic thrust bearings (not to scale)
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Hybrid hydrodynamic (spiral grooves) and hydrostatic (orifices) 0.7 mm dia. thrust bearing
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Material properties relevant to high speed, high temperature rotating machinery
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200 μm high, Si turbine blades new and after 5 hrs at 1600 K gas temperature in a microcombustor exhaust
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Usable strength of Si/SiC/Si hybrid structure in tension. (Figure courtesy of H.-S. Moon.)
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A 50 μm sq hot film RPM and temperature sensor
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A 1 mm dia. fuel control valve on Si beam springs
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Fields and charges in a microscale electric induction motor-generator
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A 131-pole, 6-phase, 4 mm dia. electric induction stator
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A 4-pole stator for a 4 mm dia. magnetic motor-generator. (Figure courtesy of M. Allen.)
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Specific core power versus turbine rotor inlet temperature (after Koff)
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Simple cycle performance variation for low pressure ratios, π (η=adiabatic efficiency, Tt4=turbine inlet temperature, Tt2=compressor inlet temperature). (Figure courtesy of M. Monroe.)
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Micron-scale counterflow heat exchanger. (Figure courtesy of J. Brisson.)
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A 15 N (3.3 lb) thrust bipropellant liquid rocket engine
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A 2.5 g/sec turbopump rotor (the pump is the inner blade row, the turbine the outer)
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Concept of a MEMS gas turbine engine packaged as a standard military battery

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