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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Cycle-Resolved NO Measurements in a Two-Stroke Large-Bore Natural Gas Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Paulius V. Puzinauskas

Mechanical Engineering Department, U.S. Naval Academy, 590 Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402

Daniel B. Olsen, Bryan D. Willson

Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 126(2), 429-441 (Jun 07, 2004) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1635401 History: Received July 01, 2002; Revised January 01, 2003; Online June 07, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

1990 Clean Air Act Amendments.
Steyskal, M., Olsen, D., and Willson, B., 2001, “Development of PEMS Models for Predicting NOx Emissions From Large Bore Natural Gas Engines,” SAE International Spring Fuels & Lubricants, Special Publication SP-1625, Paper No. 2001-01-1914.
Beshouri, G. M., 1998, “Combustion Pressure Based Emissions Monitoring and Control for Large Bore IC Engines: An Alternative Parametric Emissions Model (PEMS) Methodology,” Engine Emissions and Environmental Issues, ICE-Vol 30.1, ASME Paper 98-ICE-87, ASME, New York.
Kubesh, J. T., and Smith, J. A., “Predictive NOx Model Development,” GRI Report, GRI-97/0117.
Schoonover, R. C., 1995, “Development of a Turbocharger Simulation Package and Applications to Large-Bore Engine Research,” MS thesis, Colorado State University.
Potter, C. R., 1995, “Design and Development of an Independent, Large-Bore, Natural-Gas Engine Test Facility,” MS thesis, Colorado State University.
Olsen,  D. B., Hutcherson,  G. C., Willson,  B. D., and Mitchell,  C. E., 2002, “Development of the Tracer Gas Method for Large Bore Natural Gas Engines: Part 1—Method Validation,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 124, pp. 678–685.
Olsen,  D. B., Hutcherson,  G. C., Willson,  B. D., and Mitchell,  C. E., 2002, “Development of the Tracer Gas Method for Large Bore Natural Gas Engines: Part 2—Measurement of Scavenging Parameters,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 124, pp. 686–694.
Urban, C. M., and Sharp, C. A., 1994, “Computing Air/Fuel Ratio From Exhaust Composition,” Natural Gas and Alternative Fuels for Engines, ASME ICE-Vol. 24, ASME, New York.
Baltisberger, S., and Ruhm, K., 1994, “Fast NO Measuring Device for Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE Paper 940962.
Reavell, K. St. J., Collings, N., Peckham, M., and Hands, T., 1997, “Simultaneous Fast Response NO and HC Measurements From a Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper 971610.
Puzinauskas,  P. V., Olsen,  D. B., Willson,  B. D., 2003, “Mass-Integration of Fast-Response NO Measurements From a Two-Stroke Large-Bore Natural Gas Engine,” Int. J. Eng. Res., 4 (3), pp. 233–248.
Merryman, E. L., and Levy, A., 1974, “Nitrogen Oxide Formation in Flames: The Roles of NO2 and Fuel Nitrogen,” Fifteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 1073–1083.

Figures

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The Cooper Bessemer GMV-4TF large-bore natural-gas engine
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Photograph of fNO400 sample head mounted to GMV exhaust port
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NO, NOx, and NO2 concentration versus boost. NO and NO2 measured using the “steady” FTIR and NOx measured using the “steady” CLD
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FTIR NO and NO2 concentrations versus boost
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COV of IMEP and BSFC versus boost using single and multistrike ignition
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FTIR, NO, and NO2 concentrations versus spark timing
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COV of IMEP and BSEC versus spark timing using single-strike ignition
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COV of IMEP versus spark timing. Engine average data compared to cylinder 2 and cylinder 4.
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Ensemble average NO concentration for cylinder 4, single-strike ignition, 6 Hg boost
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Ensemble-average NO concentration for cylinder 4, multistrike ignition, 6 Hg boost
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Individual cycle NO concentrations for 200 consecutive cycles. Cylinder 4, multistrike ignition, 6 Hg boost.
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Ensemble-average NO concentration for cylinder 4, single-strike ignition, 13 Hg boost
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Ensemble-average NO concentration for cylinder 4, multistrike ignition, 13 Hg boost
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Individual cycle NO concentrations for 200 consecutive cycles. Cylinder 4, multistrike ignition, 13 Hg boost.
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Consecutive cycle sequence including the highest NO producers. 13 Hg boost single-strike ignition, cylinder 4. First cycle shown is cycle 50 of the test and cycle 55 (beginning at 1800 deg) is the highest NO producer of these 10.
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Consecutive cycle sequence including the highest NO producer. 13 Hg boost multistrike ignition, cylinder 4. Sequence shown starts at cycle 81 of the test, highest NO producer was cycle 85 (beginning at 1440 deg).
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Ensemble-average cycle-resolved NO as a function of intake boost. Single-strike ignition.
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Ensemble-average cycle-resolved NO as a function of spark timing
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Integrated fast NO versus FTIR “steady” measurements
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Cylinder 4 individual cycle integrated fast NO versus crank angle location of peak pressure for various boost pressures. Single-strike ignition.
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Cylinder 4 individual cycle integrated fast NO versus peak pressure for various boost pressures. Single-strike ignition.
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Cylinder 2 individual cycle integrated fast NO versus crank angle location of peak pressure for various boost pressures. Single-strike ignition.
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Cylinder 2 individual cycle integrated fast NO versus peak pressure for various boost pressures. Single-strike ignition.
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Cylinder 4 individual cycle integrated fast NO versus crank-angle location of peak pressure for various ignition timings. Single-strike ignition.
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Cylinder 4 individual cycle integrated fast NO versus peak pressure for various ignition timings. Single-strike ignition.

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