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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Advanced Energy Systems

A Simulation Model for Hot Spring Thermal Energy Conversion Plant With Working Fluid of Binary Mixtures

[+] Author and Article Information
Ou Bai

Department of Advanced Systems Control Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjomachi 1, Saga 840-8502, Japan Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University, Honjomachi 1, Saga 840-8502, Japan 

Masatoshi Nakamura

Department of Advanced Systems Control Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjomachi 1, Saga 840-8502, Japan  

Yasuyuki Ikegami, Haruo Uehara

Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University, Honjomachi 1, Saga 840-8502, Japan

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 126(3), 445-454 (Aug 11, 2004) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1760526 History: Received March 01, 2002; Revised September 01, 2003; Online August 11, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Vadus, J. R., 1999, “Ocean Technology and Ocean Energy in the 21st Century,” Proc. the International OTEC/DOWA Conference’99, Imari, Japan, Saga University, Saga, Japan, pp. 10–22.
Heydt,  G. T., 1993, “An Assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion as an Advanced Electric Generation Methodology,” Proc. IEEE, 81(3), pp. 409–418.
Uehara,  H., Kusuda,  H., Monde,  M. , 1980, “Performance Analysis of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion,” Therm. Nucl. Power,31(5), pp. 549–559 (in Japanese).
Uehara, H., Ikegami, Y., Mitsumori, T., Sasaki K., and Nogami R., 1999, “The Experimental Research on Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Using Uehara Cycle,” Proc. the International OTEC/DOWA Conference’99, Imari, Japan, Saga University, Saga, Japan, pp. 132–135.
Nakamura,  M., Ikegami,  Y., and Uehara,  H., 1988, “Computer Simulation for OTEC System Design: Pump Control of Flow Rate,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Refrig. Air Cond. Eng.,5(2), pp. 247–253 (in Japanese).
Janik, C. J. et al., 1998–1999, “Physical, Chemical and Isotopic Data for Samples From the Anderson Spring area, Lake County, CA, 1998–1999,” at http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of99-585/.
Uehara,  H., and Ikegami,  Y., 1990, “Optimization of a Closed Cycle OTEC System,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 112, pp. 247–256.
Uehara,  H., and Ikegami,  Y., 1990, “Optimization of a Closed Cycle OTEC System,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 112(4), pp. 247–256.
Nakamura,  M., Jitsuhara,  S., Isogai,  H., and Uehara,  H., 1991, “Computer Simulation Developments for OTEC Plant Design and Control,” Trans. Soc. Instrument Control Eng.,27(1), pp. 107–114 (in Japanese).
Uehara,  H., Ikegami,  Y., and Nishida,  T., 1998, “Performance Analysis of OTEC System Using a Cycle With Absorption and Extraction Processes,” Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., Ser. B, 64(624), pp. 384–389.
Kalina, A. I., 1987, “Regeneration of the Working Fluid and Generation of Energy,” Japanese Patent, Sho62-39660.
Uehara, H., Ikegami, Y., and Nishida, T., 1995, “OTEC System Using a New Cycle With Absorption and Extraction Processes,” Physical Chemistry of Aqueous System, White et al., eds., Begell House, Washington, DC, pp. 862–869.
Itoi, R. et al., 2001, “A Program Package for Thermal-Physical Properties of Fluids,” Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, http://propath.mech.kyushu-u.ac.jp/.
Nakaoka,  T., and Uehara,  H., 1988, “Performance Test of Shell-and-Plate Evaporator for OTEC,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 1(3), pp. 283–291.
Jones, J. B., and Hawkins, G. A. 1986, Engineering Thermodynamics, Jone Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 661–707.
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Figures

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Diagram of power cycle of the pilot STEC plant. The thick, middle, and thin solid lines stands for the high, middle, and low pressure parts in the power cycle, respectively.
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Model structure of evaporator and separator
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Model structure of condenser and tank 1
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Model structure of heater and tank 2
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Model structure of absorber
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Model structure of regenerator
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Model structure of turbine
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Model structure of diffuser
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Model simulation and evaluation under changeable spring water temperature. The experimental data depicted by the dotted lines were acquired from a pilot STEC plant. The consistence between the simulation results and the experimental data demonstrates that the developed models can represent the real STEC plant sufficiently.
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Model simulation of step response of spring water temperature. The power rate GTB increased slightly in about 100 s, then, dropped to 3.8 kW. The reason is that the burden of the condenser also increases and cannot cool the vapor sufficiently so that the pressure at the outlet of turbine (e.g., the pressure in condenser) increases. The illustrated characteristics are useful for developing an appropriate plant controller to achieve a stable plant operation.
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Model simulation of step response of mass flow rate of spring water. The power rate GTB decreased slightly in about 100 s, then, increased to 4.2 kW. From this simulation, an appropriate gain can be selected in order to develop an appropriate controller for achieving a stable power generation from turbine under the temperature change of spring water.

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