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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Industrial and Cogeneration

Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Part I: Fog Droplet Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Practical Considerations

[+] Author and Article Information
Mustapha Chaker

Cyrus B. Meher-Homji, Thomas Mee

Gas Turbine Division, Mee Industries, Inc., 204 West Pomona Avenue, Monrovia, CA 91016

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 126(3), 545-558 (Aug 11, 2004) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1712981 History: Received December 01, 2001; Revised March 01, 2002; Online August 11, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R., 1999, “Gas Turbine Power Augmentation by Fogging of Inlet Air,” Proceedings of the 28th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, Sept.
Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R., 2000, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Part II: Practical Considerations, Control and O&M Aspects,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0308.
Bhargava, R., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2002, “Parametric Analysis of Existing Gas Turbines With Inlet Evaporative and Overspray Fogging,” ASME Paper No. 2002-GT-30560.
Kleinschmidt, R. V., 1946, “The Value of Wet Compression in Gas Turbine Cycles,” Annual Meeting of the ASME, Dec. 2–6.
Wilcox, E. C., and Trout, A. M., 1951, “Analysis of Thrust Augmentation of Turbojet Engines by Water Injection at the Compressor Inlet Including Charts for Calculation Compression Processes With Water Injection,” NACA Report No. 1006.
Hill,  P. G., 1963, “Aerodynamic and Thermodynamic Effects of Coolant Ingestion on Axial Flow Compressors,” Aeronaut. Q., Feb. pp. 333–348.
Arsen’ev,  L. V., and Berkovich,  A. L., 1996, “The Parameters of Gas Turbine Units With Water Injected Into the Compressor,” Therm. Eng., 43(6), pp. 461–465.
Nolan, J. P., and Twombly, V. J., 1990, “Gas Turbine Performance Improvement Direct Mixing Evaporative Cooling System,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-368.
Utamura, M., Kuwahara, T., Murata, H., and Horii, N., 1999, “Effects of Intensive Evaporative Cooling on Performance Characteristics of Land-Based Gas Turbine,” Proceedings of the ASME International Joint Power Generation Conference, ASME, New York.
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., Mee, T., and Nicolson, A., 2001, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Detailed Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-526.
Chaker, M., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Detailed Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential for International Locations,” ASME Paper No. 2002-GT-30559.
Chaker, M., 1995, “Etudes de la Desintegration Electrohydrodynamique de Gouttes Fortement Chargees,” doctoral thesis, University of Nice, Sophia Antipolis, France.
Handbook Of Chemistry, 59th Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Ranz, W. E., and Marshall, W. R., 1952, “Evaporation From Drops, Parts I and II,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 48 (3).
Pelletret, R. Y., 1984, “Contribution a l’etude des transferts couples de masse et de chaleur entre une gouttelette d’un liquide hydroscopique et l’air. Conceptiond’echangeurs par pulveresation d’un liquide dans un flux d’air,” doctoral thesis, University of Valenciennes, France.
Wexler,  A., and Greenspan,  L., 1971, “Vapor Pressure Equation in the Range 0–100°C,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand., Sect. A, 75A, p. 213.
Ingistov, S., 2000, “Fog System Performance in Power Augmentation of Heavy Duty Power Generating Gas Turbines GE Frame 7EA,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-305.
Meher-Homji, C. B., 1995, “Blading Vibration and Failures in Gas Turbines—Part I: Blading Dynamics and the Operating Environment,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-418.
Meher-Homji, C.-B., 1995, “Blading Vibration and Failures in Gas Turbines—Part II: Compressor and Turbine Airfoil Distress,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-419.
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Meher-Homji, C. B., 1990, “Gas Turbine Axial Compressor Fouling—A Unified Treatment of Its Effects, Detection & Control,” Int. J. Turbo. Jet Engines, 9 (4).
Meher-Homji, C. B., Chaker, M., and Motiwalla, H., 2001, “Gas Turbine Performance Deterioration,” Proceedings of the 30th Turbomachinery Symposium, Turbomachinery Laboratory, Texas A&M University, Houston, TX, Sept. 17–20.
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee T. R., III, 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Part II: Fog Droplet Sizing Analysis, Nozzle Types, Measurement and Testing,” 126 , pp. 559–570.
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee T. R., III, 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Part III: Fog Behavior in Inlet Ducts, CFD Analysis and Wind Tunnel Experiments,” 126 , pp. 571–580.

Figures

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Typical gas turbine inlet fogging skid
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Fog nozzle manifold operating in the inlet duct of a GE-7EA gas turbine
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Fog from an impaction pin-fogging nozzle operating at 2000 psig (138 barg)
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Experimental wind tunnel (10.5 m long, 25 m/sec) used to study droplet kinetics and thermodynamics. This wind tunnel provides dynamic similarity to gas turbine inlet ducts.
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Effect of air velocity, measurement locations, and diameter definition on droplet size
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Computational model for droplet evaporation
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Transient behavior of a two 14-micron droplets, one at 35°C (94°F) and one at 20°C (68°F); starting air conditions are 35°C and 30% RH
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Transient behavior of two 30-micron droplets, one at 35°C and one at 20°C; starting air conditions are 35°C and 30% RH
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Qualitative behavior measured in a duct showing the increase in relative humidity from a starting condition of 35% RH and the corresponding drop in air temperature in the duct
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Interaction of droplet to surrounding air conditions; droplet diameter; 50 microns
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Interaction of droplet to surrounding air conditions; droplet diameter: 20 microns
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Special channel system for water drain
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Duct support structures like those shown here can collect fog and result in excessive pooling of water. Such obstructions must be taken into account when designing the nozzle manifolds.
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Corroded inlet air duct floor

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