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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Microturbines and Small Turbomachinery

The Oxidation of Metal Alloy Foils in the Presence of Water Vapor

[+] Author and Article Information
James M. Rakowski

Allegheny Ludlum Technical Center, Alabama and Pacific Avenues, Brackenridge, PA 15014-1597

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 126(4), 867-873 (Nov 24, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1787508 History: Received October 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online November 24, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Kubaschewski, O., and Hopkins, B. E., 1962, Oxidation of Metals and Alloys, Butterworths, London.
Caplan,  D., and Cohen,  M., 1959, Corrosion (Houston), 15, pp. 57–62.
Fujii,  C. T., and Meussner,  R. A., 1963, J. Electrochem. Soc., 110, pp. 1195–1204.
Fujii,  C. T., and Meussner,  R. A., 1964, J. Electrochem. Soc., 111, pp. 1215–1221.
Wood,  G. C. , 1970, Werkst. Korros., 8, pp. 900–910.
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Kvernes,  I. , 1977, Corros. Sci., 17, pp. 237–252.
Kofstad, P., 1988, High Temperature Corrosion, Elsevier, London.
Khanna, A. S., and Kofstad, P., 1991, Proceedings of the International Conference Held at the University of Cambridge, March 26–28, 1990, M. J. Bennett and G. Lorimer, eds, IOM, London.
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Saeki,  I. , 1998, Corros. Sci., 40, pp. 191–200.
Lee, Y. et al., 1996, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Microscopy of Oxidation Held at Trinity Hall the University of Cambridge, September 16–18, 1996, S. B. Newcomb and J. A. Little, eds., IOM, London.
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Asteman,  H. , 1999, Oxid. Met., 52, pp. 95–111.
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Pint, B. A., and Rakowski, J. M., “Paper 00259 Effect of Water Vapor on the Oxidation Resistance of Stainless Steels,” in Proceedings of NACE/2000, Orlando FL, March 26–31, 2000, NACE International, Houston.
Rakowski, J. M., and Pint, B. A., 2000, “Paper 00517 Observations of the Effect of Water Vapor on the Elevated Temperature Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foil,” in Proceedings of NACE/2000, Orlando FL, March 26–31, 2000, NACE International, Houston.
Rakowski, J. M., 2001, “The Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steel Foil in Humidified Air,” in Proceedings of the ASME IGTI Turbo Expo, New Orleans LA, June 4–7, 2001, ASME International, New York.
Kofstad, P., 1966, High Temperature Oxidation of Metals, Wiley, New York.
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Figures

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Oxidation of Type 347 in ambient air
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Effect of water vapor on the oxidation of Type 347
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SEM micrograph of the surface of Type 347 after 1000 h at 1300°F in air+10% water vapor
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SEM micrograph of the surface of Type 347 after 1000 h at 1400°F in air+7% water vapor
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Effect of flow rate on the oxidation of Type 347 in air containing water vapor at 1300°F (top—7% water vapor; bottom—10% water vapor)
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Effect of water vapor on the oxidation of Type 302B (high silicon)
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SEM micrograph of the surface of Type 302B after 1500 h at 1300°F in air+7% water vapor
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SEM micrographs of the surface of Type 302B after 1000 h at 1400°F in air+7% water vapor (top—typical; middle and bottom—spalled)
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Effect of higher chromium on the oxidation of austenitic stainless steels in air containing water vapor
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SEM micrograph of the surface of a high Cr austenitic alloy after 1500 h at 1300°F in air+10% water vapor
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SEM micrographs of the surface and of the scale in cross section of a high Cr austenitic alloy after 1500 h at 1400°F in air+7% water vapor
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Effect of water vapor on the oxidation of the HX alloy at 1300°F
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Effect of water vapor on the oxidation of the HX alloy at 1400°F
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Effect of water vapor on the oxidation of the 625 alloy at 1300°F
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Effect of water vapor on the oxidation of the 625 alloy at 1400°F
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SEM micrograph of the surface of a 625 alloy sample after 1500 h at 1300°F in air (top—air+7% water vapor; bottom—air+10% water vapor)
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SEM micrographs (secondary and backscattered electron modes) of the scale in cross section of a UNS N06625 sample after 1500 h at 1400°F in air+7% water vapor
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Chromium profiles as a function of distance from the scale/metal interface for 625 alloy samples exposed for 1500 h at 1300°F (SEM microprobe analysis)
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Chromium profiles as a function of distance from the scale/metal interface for 625 alloy samples exposed at 1400°F (SEM microprobe analysis)
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SAM compositional depth profiles from 625 alloy samples after 500 h exposure in air containing various levels of water vapor (a, oxygen; b, chromium; c, nickel)
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SAM compositional depth profiles from 625 alloy samples after 1500 h exposure in air containing various levels of water vapor (a, oxygen; b, chromium; c, nickel)

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