TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Advanced Energy Systems

Cooling Tower Performance Evaluation: Merkel, Poppe, and e-NTU Methods of Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Johannes C. Kloppers, Detlev G. Kröger

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(1), 1-7 (Feb 09, 2005) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1787504 History: Received December 04, 2002; Revised October 20, 2003; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


McKelvey, K. K., and Brooke, M., 1959, The Industrial Cooling Tower, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Merkel, F., “Verdunstungskühlung,” 1925, VDI-Zeitchrift, Vol. 70, pp. 123–128.
Osterle,  F., 1991, “On the Analysis of Counter-Flow Cooling Towers,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 34(4/5), pp. 1313–1316.
Jaber,  H., and Webb,  R. L., 1989, “Design of Cooling Towers by the Effectiveness-NTU Method,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 111, pp. 837–843.
Poppe, M., and Rögener, H., 1991, “Berechnung von Rückkühlwerken,” VDI-Wärmeatlas, pp. Mi 1–Mi 15.
Kloppers, J. C., and Kröger, D. G., 2001, “A Critical Cooling Tower Performance Evaluation,” 12th IAHR Symposium in Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Bosnjacovic, F., 1965, “Technische Thermodinmik,” Theodor Steinkopf, Dresden.
Bourillot, C., 1983, “TEFERI, Numerical Model for Calculating the Performance of an Evaporative Cooling Tower,” EPRI Report CS-3212-SR, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto.
Baard, T. W., 1998, “Performance Characteristics of Expanded Metal Cooling Tower Fill,” M. Eng. thesis, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Berman, L. D., 1961, Evaporative Cooling of Circulating Water, 2nd Edition, Chap. 2, pp. 94–99, edited by H. Sawistowski, translated from Russian by R. Hardbottle, Pergamon, New York.
Kröger, D. G., 1998, Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers and Cooling Towers Thermal-Flow Performance, Evaluation and Design, PennWell Corp., Tulsa, OK.
Bourillot, C., 1983, “On the Hypothesis of Calculating the Water Flowrate Evaporated in a Wet Cooling Tower,” EPRI Report CS-3144-SR, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto.
Grange, J. L., 1994, “Calculating the Evaporated Water Flow in a Wet Cooling Tower,” paper presented at the 9th IAHR Cooling Tower and Spraying Pond Symposium, von Karman Institute, Brussels, Belgium.
Roth, M., 2001, “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer in Wet Cooling Towers. All Well Known or are Further Developments Necessary?” 12th IAHR Symposium in Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers, UTS, Sydney, Australia.
Hässler, R., 1999, “Einfluss von Kondensation in der Grenzschicht auf die Wärme-und Stoffübertragung an einem Rieselfilm,” Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Reihe 3, Nr. 615.
Feltzin, A. E., and Benton, D., 1991, “A More Exact Representation of Cooling Tower Theory,” CTI J., 12(2), pp. 8–26.
Sutherland,  J. W., 1983, “Analysis of Mechanical-Draught Counterflow Air/Water Cooling Towers,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105, pp. 576–583.


Grahic Jump Location
Control volume of counterflow fill
Grahic Jump Location
Air-side control volume of fill
Grahic Jump Location
Control volume of the fill
Grahic Jump Location
Heat rejected, Q; water outlet temperature, Two; air outlet temperature Tao; mean air-vapor mass flow rate, mav; and mass flow rate of evaporated water, mw(evap) for Tai=280 and 300 K
Grahic Jump Location
Measured outlet air temperature versus Merkel, e-NTU and Poppe predictions
Grahic Jump Location
Merkel number versus water inlet temperature




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In