TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Flame Ionization Sensor Integrated Into a Gas Turbine Fuel Nozzle

[+] Author and Article Information
Kelly Benson

Woodward Industrial Controls, Ft. Collins, CO 80525e-mail: kbenso@woodward.com

Jimmy D. Thornton, Douglas L. Straub, E. David Huckaby, Geo. A. Richards

U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(1), 42-48 (Feb 09, 2005) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1788686 History: Received October 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Docquier,  N., and Candel,  S., 2002, “Combustion Control and Sensors: a Review,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 28, pp. 107–150.
Fric, T. F., Correa, S. M., and Bigelow, E. C., 1994, “Fuel Trim Control for Multi-Burner Combustors Based on Emissions Sampling,” Proceedings of ASME COGEN-TURBO 1994, ASME, New York, NY IGTI-Vol. 9, pp. 503–511.
St. John, D., and Samuelson, G. S., 1994, “Active Optimal Control of a Model Industrial Natural Gas Fired Burner,” Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth International Symposium on Combustion, editors, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 307–316.
Jackson,  M. D., and Agrawal,  A. K., 1999, “Active Control of Combustion for Optimal Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 121, pp. 437–443.
Corbett,  N. C., and Lines,  N. P., 1994, “Control Requirements for the RB 211 Low-Emission Combustion System,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 116, pp. 527–533.
Pandalai, R. P., and Mongia, H. C. 1998, “Combustion Instability Characteristics of Industrial Engine Dry Low Emission Combustion Systems,” AIAA Paper No. 98-3379.
Scott,  D. A., King,  G. B., and Laurendeau,  N. M., 2002, “Chemiluminescence-Based Feedback Control of Equivalence Ratio for a Continuous Combustor,” J. Propul. Power, 18(2), pp. 376–382.
Sandrowitz,  A., Cooke,  J. M., and Glumac,  N. G., 1998, “Flame Emission Spectroscopy for Equivalence Ratio Monitoring,” Appl. Spectrosc., 52(5), pp. 285–289.
Lee, J. G., Kim, K., and Santavicca, D. A., 2000, “Measurement of Equivalence Ratio Fluctuation and Its Effect on Heat Release During Unstable Combustion,” Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 415–421.
Brown,  D. M., Downey,  E., Kretchmer,  J., Michon,  G., Shu,  E., and Schneider,  D., 1998, “SiC Flame Sensor for Gas Turbine Control Systems,” Solid State Electronics,42, pp. 755–760.
Eriksson,  L., and Nielsen,  L., 1997, “Ionization Current Interpretation for Ignition Control in Internal Combustion Engines,” Control Engineering Practice,5, pp. 1107–1113.
Waterfall,  Roger C., He,  Ruhua, and Beck,  Christopher M., 1997, “Visualizing Combustion Using Electrical Impedance Tomography,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 52, pp. 2129–2138.
Thornton, J. D., Straub, D. L., Richards, G. A., Nutter, R. S., and Robey, E., 2001, “An In-Situ Monitoring Technique for Control and Diagnostics of Natural Gas Combustion Systems,” Proceedings of the Second Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
Straub, D. L., Thornton, J. T., Chorpening, B. T., and Richards, G. A., 2002, “In-Situ Flame Ionization Measurements In Lean Premixed Natural Gas Combustion Systems,” Proceedings of the Western States Section of the Combustion Institute Spring Technical Meeting, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA.
Calcote,  H. F., 1957, “Mechanism for the Formation of Ions in Flames,” Combust. Flame, 1, pp. 385–403.
Fialkov,  A. B., 1997, “Investigations on Ions in Flames,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 23, pp. 399–528.
Calcote,  H. F., 1949, “Ionization Flame Detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 20, pp. 349–352.
Calcote, H. F., and Berman, C. H., 1989, “Increased Methane-Air Stability Limits by a DC Electric Field,” Proceeding of the ASME Fossil Fuels Combustion Symposium, ASME, New York, NY, Vol. 25, pp. 25–31.
Cheng,  W. K., Summers,  T., and Collings,  N., 1998, “The Fast-Response Flame Ionization Detector,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 24, pp. 89–124.
Thornton, J. D., Richards, G. A., and Robey, E., 2000, “Detecting Flashback in Premix Combustion Systems,” presented at the American Flame Research Committee International Symposium, Newport Beach, California, September 17–21.
Fluent Inc. 2001, Fluent 6.0 User’s Guide, Lebanon, NH.
Straub, D. L., and Richards, G. A. 1999, “Effect of Axial Swirl-vane Location On Combustion Dynamics,” ASME Paper 99-GT-109.
Mansour,  A., Benjamin,  M., Straub,  D. L., and Richards,  G. A., 2000, “Application of Macrolamination Technology to Lean Premix Combustion,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123, pp. 796–802.
Straub, D. L., Richards, G. A., Baumann, W. T., and Saunders, W. R., 2001, “Measurement of Dynamic Flame Response In A Lean Premixed Single-Can Combustor,” ASME 2001-GT-0038.
Mahan, J. R., and Karchmer, A. 1991, “Combustion Core Noise,” Aeroacoustics of Flight Vehicles: Theory and Practice, Volume 1: Noise Sources, NASA Reference Publication 1258, Harvey H. Hubbard, ed., NASA Langley Research Center, Chap. 9.
Cannon, S. M., Adumitroaie, V., and Smith, C. E., 2001, “3D LES Modeling of Combustion Dynamics in Lean Premixed Combustors,” ASME Paper 2001-GT-0375.


Grahic Jump Location
Lean premix fuel nozzle with CCADS electrode on the fuel injector center-body
Grahic Jump Location
Illustrates the electric flux lines from the guard and sense electrodes
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of Woodward prototype fuel injector with CCADS
Grahic Jump Location
Front view of Woodward prototype fuel injector
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of CCADS tip for prototype fuel injector center body
Grahic Jump Location
2D electrostatic simulation potential gradient and flux lines. Flux lines are shown with arrows, potential lines solid. Values from 0 V at ground to 15 V at the electrodes.
Grahic Jump Location
Schematic of pressurized combustion test rig
Grahic Jump Location
Time series data showing the dynamic pressure and the measured CCADS current. (A) Condition A, ϕ=0.59, (B) Condition B, ϕ=0.65, (C) Condition C, ϕ=0.7 (see Table 1).
Grahic Jump Location
Frequency spectrum of the dynamic pressure, sense current and guard current. (A) Condition A, ϕ=0.59, (B) Condition B, ϕ=0.65, (C) Condition C, ϕ=0.7 (see Table 1).
Grahic Jump Location
Average guard current computed from the 60 ms time series data shown in Fig. 8




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In