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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Electric Power

The Effect of Turbine Blade Cooling on the Cycle Efficiency of Gas Turbine Power Cycles

[+] Author and Article Information
R. C. Wilcock, J. B. Young, J. H. Horlock

Hopkinson Laboratory, Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(1), 109-120 (Feb 09, 2005) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1805549 History: Received July 10, 2003; Revised September 23, 2003; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

MacArthur, C. D., 1999, “Advanced Aero-Engine Turbine Technologies and Their Application to Industrial Gas Turbines,” ISABE 14th Int. Symp. on Air-Breathing Engines, Florence, Paper 99-7151.
Horlock,  J. H., Watson,  D. T., and Jones,  T. V., 2001, “Limitations on Gas Turbine Performance Imposed by Large Turbine Cooling Flows,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123, pp. 487–494.
Wilcock, R. C., Young, J. B., and Horlock, J. H., 2002, “Gas Properties as a Limit To Gas Turbine Performance,” ASME Turbo-Expo 2002, Amsterdam, Paper GT-2002-30517.
Young,  J. B., and Wilcock,  R. C., 2002, “Modelling the Air-Cooled Gas Turbine: Part 1-General Thermodynamics,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124, pp. 207–213.
Young,  J. B., and Wilcock,  R. C., 2002, “Modelling the Air-Cooled Gas Turbine: Part 2-Coolant Flows and Losses,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124, pp. 214–221.
Chase, Jr., M. W., Davies, C. A., Downey, Jr., J. R., Frurip, D. J., McDonald, R. A., and Syverud, A. N., 1986, “JANAF Thermochemical Tables,” Third Edition, American Institute of Physics, New York.
Holland,  M. J., and Thake,  T. F., 1980, “Rotor Blade Cooling in High Pressure Turbines,” J. Aircr., 17, pp. 412–418.
Horlock,  J. H., 2001, “Basic Thermodynamics of Turbine Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 583–592.
El-Masri,  M. A., 1987, “Exergy Analysis of Combined Cycles: Part 1, Air-Cooled Brayton-Cycle Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 109, pp. 228–235.
Consonni, S, 1992, “Performance Prediction of Gas/Steam Cycles for Power Generation,” Ph.D. thesis no. 1983-T, MAE Dept. Princeton Univ.
Chiesa, P., and Macchi, E., 2002, “A Thermodynamic Analysis of Different Options to Break 60% Electric Efficiency in Combined Cycle Power Plant,” ASME Turbo-Expo 2002, Amsterdam, Paper 2002-GT-30663.
Kawaike,  K., Kobayishi,  N., and Ikeguchi,  T., 1984, “Effect of Blade Cooling System With Minimized Gas Temperature Dilution on Gas Turbine Performance,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 106, pp. 756–764.
Hartsel, J. E., 1972, “Prediction of Effects of Mass-Transfer Cooling on the Blade-Row Efficiency of Turbine Airfoils,” AIAA, 10th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, San Diego, Paper AIAA-72-11.

Figures

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Schematic diagram of simple-cycle cooled industrial gas turbine
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Schematic diagram of a cooled turbine stage. Complete mixing is assumed at planes 1, 2, 3, and 4.
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Schematic diagram illustrating the cooling irreversibilities
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Uncooled GT with ηpoly,Cpoly,Tpoly. Contours of constant cycle efficiency ηcyc with contour interval 0.01. Combustor outlet temperature Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, compressor pressure ratio rp=24–60 on ordinate. Dotted lines are loci of Tcot,opt(Tcot for maximum ηcyc at constant rp).
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Cooled GT with “current cooling technology” from Table 1 and ηpoly,Cpoly,Tpolypoly,T refers to an uncooled mainstream expansion). Contours of constant cycle efficiency ηcyc with contour interval 0.01. Combustor outlet temperature Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, compressor pressure ratio rp=24–60 on ordinate. Dotted lines are loci of Tcot,opt(Tcot for maximum ηcyc at constant rp).
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Cycle efficiency cooling penalty Δηcyc for current cooling technology and ηpoly=0.90. Combustor outlet temperature Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, compressor pressure ratio rp=24–60 on ordinate. At each condition (Tcot,rp), the contours represent the difference in cycle efficiency between Figs. 4(c) and 5(c).
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Fractional cooling flowrates ψ for current cooling technology and ηpoly=0.90. Combustor outlet temperature Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, compressor pressure ratio rp=24–60 on ordinate. In (a) ψ is based on the exit flow from the first stator and in (b) on the exit flow from the final stage.
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Cooled GT with “advanced cooling technology” from Table 1. Contours of constant cycle efficiency ηcyc with contour interval 0.01. Combustor outlet temperature Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, compressor pressure ratio rp=24–60 on ordinate. Dotted lines are loci of Tcot,opt(Tcot for maximum ηcyc at constant rp).
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Cooled GT with “super-advanced cooling technology” from Table 1. Contours of constant cycle efficiency ηcyc with contour interval 0.01. Combustor outlet temperature Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, compressor pressure ratio rp=24–60 on ordinate. Dotted lines are loci of Tcot,opt(Tcot for maximum ηcyc at constant rp).
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GT with the “ultimate turbomachinery efficiency” of ηpoly=0.925. Contours of constant cycle efficiency ηcyc with contour interval 0.01. Combustor outlet temperature Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, compressor pressure ratio rp=24–60 on ordinate. Dotted lines are loci of Tcot,opt(Tcot for maximum ηcyc at constant rp).
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Contours of constant ηcyc (contour interval=0.01) with ηpoly,Cpoly,Tpoly. Each plot has Tcot=1400–2200 K on abscissa, rp=24–60 on ordinate. Dotted lines are loci of Tcot for maximum ηcyc at constant rp. Left to right, increasing cooling technology. Bottom to top, increasing turbomachinary ηpoly.

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