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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Orifice Diameter Effects on Diesel Fuel Jet Flame Structure

[+] Author and Article Information
Lyle M. Pickett, Dennis L. Siebers

Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 969, MS 9053, Livermore, CA 94551

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(1), 187-196 (Feb 09, 2005) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1760525 History: Received June 01, 2002; Revised August 01, 2003; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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References

Dec,  J. E., 1997, “A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser-Sheet Imaging,” Trans. SAE,106, Sec. 3, pp. 1319–1348 (SAE Technical Paper 970873).
Chomiak, J., and Karlsson, A., 1996, “Flame Liftoff in Diesel Sprays,” Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, pp. 2557–2504.
Siebers, D. L., and Higgins, B., 2001, “Flame Lift-Off on Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0530.
Higgins, B. S., and Siebers, D. L., 2001, “Measurement of the Flame Lift-Off Location on DI Diesel Sprays Using OH Chemiluminescence,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0918.
Siebers, D. L., and Higgins, B. S., 2000, “Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays,” Conference on Thermofluidynamic Processes in Diesel Engines, Valencia, Spain, Sept. 14–15.
Naber,  J. D., and Siebers,  D. L., 1996, “Effects of Gas Density and Vaporization on Penetration and Dispersion of Diesel Sprays,” Trans. SAE,105, Sec. 3, pp. 82–111 (SAE Technical Paper 960034).
Siebers,  D. L., 1998, “Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in Diesel Sprays,” Trans. SAE,107, Sec. 3, pp. 1205–1227 (SAE Technical Paper 980809).
Siebers,  D. L., 1985, “Ignition Delay Characteristics of Alternative Diesel Fuels: Implications on Cetane Number,” Trans. SAE,94, Sec. 7, pp. 673–686 (SAE Technical Paper 852102).
Oren,  D. C., Wahiduzzaman,  S., and Ferguson,  C. R., 1984, “A Diesel Combustion Bomb: Proof of Concept,” Trans. SAE,93, Sec. 5, pp. 945–960 (SAE Technical Paper 841358).
Durrett, R. P., Oren, D. C., and Ferguson, C. R., 1987, “A Multidimensional Data Set for Diesel Combustion Model Validation: I—Initial Conditions, Pressure History and Spray Shapes,” SAE Technical Paper 872087.
Siebers, D. L., 1999, “Scaling Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in Diesel Sprays Based on Mixing-Limited Vaporization,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0528.
Naber,  J. D., Siebers,  D. L., Caton,  J. A., Westbrook,  C. K., and Di Julio,  S. S., 1994, “Natural Gas Autoignition Under Diesel Conditions: Experiments and Chemical Kinetic Modeling,” Trans. SAE,103, Sec. 4, pp. 1735–1753 (SAE Technical Paper 942034).
Naber,  J. D., and Siebers,  D. L., 1998, “Hydrogen Combustion Under Diesel Engine Conditions,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 23(5), pp. 363–371.
Peters, N., 2000, Turbulent Combustion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gaydon, A. G., 1974, The Spectroscopy of Flames, Chapman and Hall, London.
Crosley, D. R., and Dryer, M. J., 1982, “Two-Dimensional Imaging of Laser-Induced Fluorescence in OH in a Flame,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers, Dec.
Kosaka,  H., Nishigaki,  T., Kamimoto,  T., Sano,  T., Matsutani,  A., and Harada,  S., 1996, “Simultaneous 2-D Imaging of OH Radicals and Soot in a Diesel Flame by Laser Sheet Techniques,” Trans. SAE,105, Sec. 3, pp. 1184–1195 (SAE Technical Paper 960834).
Becker,  H. A., and Liang,  D., 1978, “Visible Length of Vertical Free Turbulent Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 32, pp. 115–137.
Kalghatgi,  G. T., 1984, “Lift-Off Heights and Visible Flame Lengths of Vertical Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames in Still Air,” Combust. Flame, 41, pp. 17–19.
Heskestad,  G., 1999, “Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames: Consolidation of Flame Height Data,” Combust. Flame, 118, pp. 51–60.
Delichatsios,  M. A., 1993, “Transition From Momentum to Buoyancy-Controlled Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames and Flame Height Relationships,” Combust. Flame, 92, pp. 349–364.

Figures

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Schematic cross section of the combustion vessel
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Pressure history illustrating the diesel combustion simulation procedure in the combustion vessel
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Optical layout for OH chemiluminescence and soot incandescence imaging
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OH chemiluminescence image (top) and centerline intensity profile (bottom). The image is a time-average of natural light emission at 310 nm from a burning diesel fuel jet injected into an ambient gas with a temperature and density of 1000 K and 30.0 kg/m3 . The pressure drop across the injector orifice and orifice diameter were 138 MPa and 91 μm. Fuel was injected toward the right from an orifice located at the center, left edge of the image.
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Procedure for displaying OH chemiluminescence and soot incandescence images
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Lift-off length versus ambient gas temperature for a range of ambient gas densities (ρa). The pressure drop across the injector orifice and orifice diameter were 138 MPa and 180 μm. The gray region represents the range of lift-off lengths expected in (quiescent) engines. The curves through the data represent the trends along lines of constant density. (Reproduced from Ref. 3.)
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The percent of stoichiometric air entrained up to the lift-off length versus the ambient gas temperature for a range of gas densities. The pressure drop across the injector orifice and orifice diameter were 138 MPa and 180 μm. (Reproduced from Ref. 3.)
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Effect of orifice diameter on the lift-off length and the percent stoichiometric air entrainment ζst[%] upstream of the lift-off length. The curves through the data show the trends.
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OH chemiluminescence image and axial intensity profiles for 45 μm orifice with ζst[%]=58%. The ambient gas temperature, density and pressure drop across the injector orifice of 1000 K, 14.8 kg/m3 and 138 MPa. The lines drawn on the image correspond to the radial location of the intensity profile shown in the plot below in the same line type.
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Combined OH chemiluminescence and soot incandescence images. The OH chemiluminescence is plotted in grayscale and the soot incandescence is plotted in relative intensity with the color scale given in Fig. 5. The horizontal size of the images is 100 mm and the orifice is located at the left edge of the image. The ambient gas temperature, density and pressure drop across the injector orifice were 1000 K, 14.8 kg/m3 , and 138 MPa. The orifice diameter is given in the upper left corner of the image.
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Combined OH chemiluminescence and soot incandescence images. The OH chemiluminescence is plotted in grayscale and the soot incandescence is plotted in relative intensity with the color scale equal to 1/2 that given in Fig. 5, i.e., the actual intensities are twice as bright as that shown in the figure. The horizontal size of the images is 100 mm and the orifice is located at the left edge of the image. The ambient gas temperature, density and pressure drop across the injector orifice were 1000 K, 30.0 kg/m3 , and 138 MPa. The orifice diameter is given in the upper left corner of the image.
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Total soot incandescence normalized by fuel flow rate at various orifice diameters. The total soot incandescence was obtained by integrating across the entire soot incandescence image. For all cases the pressure drop across the orifice was 138 MPa.
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Total soot incandescence normalized by fuel flow rate as a function of percent stoichiometric air ζst[%] entrained upstream of the lift-off length. The conditions are the same as given in Fig. 12.
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Normalized flame length as a function of orifice diameter
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Flame length coefficient, CH, at various operating conditions derived from the measured flame lengths and Eq. (5)

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