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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Laser Ignition of Methane-Air Mixtures at High Pressures and Diagnostics

[+] Author and Article Information
Herbert Kopecek, Soren Charareh, Martin Weinrotter, Ernst Wintner

Technische Universität Wien, Institut für Photonik, Gusshausstrasse 27/387, A1040 Wien, Austria

Maximilian Lackner, Christian Forsich, Franz Winter

Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, A1060 Wien, Austria

Johann Klausner, Günther Herdin

GE Jenbacher, A6200 Jenbach, Austria

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(1), 213-219 (Feb 09, 2005) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1805550 History: Received July 15, 2003; Revised March 12, 2004; Online February 09, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Experiment setup for ignition diagnostics: 1—diagnostic diode laser at 2.55 μm; 2—temperature controller; 3—laser driver; 4—function generator; 5—detector; 6—amplifier; 7—PC; 8—oscilloscope; 9, 10—boxes purged with N2; 11—pressurized combustion vessel; 12—Nd:YAG laser; 13—fuel and air inlet; 14—exhaust gas analysis
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Minimum pulse energy needed for ignition versus air/fuel-equivalence ratio λ; methane-air mixtures, T=200 °C, fill pressure 30 bar
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Transmitted laser energy through plasma versus air/fuel-equivalence ratio λ; methane-air mixtures, T=200 °C, fill pressure 30 bar
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Pressure rise in the chamber after ignition applying minimum pulse energy; methane-air mixtures, T=200 °C, fill pressure=30 bar, laser pulse energy=25 mJ
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Ignition delay versus air/fuel-equivalence ratio at minimum laser pulse energy; methane-air mixtures, T=200 °C, fill pressure 30 bar
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Temporal shapes of the focal intensity of transmitted pulses through the medium with or without plasma formation. Depending on the input laser pulse energy, plasma is formed if the breakthrough intensity is exceeded, thereby drastically changing the transmitted pulse shape; air of technical purity, T=20 °C, fill pressure 40 bar.
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Temporal shapes of the focal intensity of transmitted pulses under reliable plasma formation condition, depending on different gaseous media (technical purity); T=20 °C, fill pressure 10 bar
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Evaluated data from the laser-induced ignition of a stoichiometric methane/air mixture, namely, gas inhomogeneity index, water absorbance, and flame emission. T=200 °C, fill pressure 30 bar, air/fuel-equivalence ratio λ=1.0
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Evaluated data from the laser-induced ignition of a fuel-lean methane/air mixture, namely, gas inhomogeneity index, water absorbance, and flame emission. T=200 °C, fill pressure 30 bar, air/fuel-equivalence ratio λ=1.7
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Pressure rise in a laser-ignited cylinder depending on laser pulse energy; 1 MW natural gas engine, mean pressure 18 bar, time of ignition 20° before DTC, NOx=500 mg/mN3, averaged over 100 cycles
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Required laser pulse energy of a laser-ignited cylinder depending on mean pressure; 1 MW gas engine, air/fuel-equivalence ratio λ=1.8
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Experimental setup for evaluation of ignition parameters: 1—Nd:YAG-Laser; 2—beam attenuator; 3,4,5—beam sampler (4%); 6—concave lens f=−40 mm; 7—spherical corrected convex lens f=60 mm; 8,9—InGaAS PIN detector; 10,11—pyroelectric detector; 12—laser energy measuring unit; 13—pressure detector; 14—charge amplifier; 15—digital storage oscilloscope; 16—fast digital storage oscilloscope; 17—combustion chamber; 18—aperture 1 mm
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Scope of timescales of various processes involved in laser-induced ignition. The lengths of the double-arrowed lines indicate the duration ranges of the indicated processes. Inserts: typical laser pulse duration; examples for temporal development of spatially resolved OH concentrations in flame kernels 7; typical pressure rise in the combustion chamber.

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