TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Aircraft Engine

Dr. Max Bentele—Pioneer of the Jet Age

[+] Author and Article Information
Cyrus B. Meher-Homji

Bechtel Corporation, 3000 Post Oak Boulevard, Houston, TX 77056-6503

Erik Prisell

Defense Materiel Administration (FMV), Sweden

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(2), 231-239 (Apr 15, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1807412 History: Received October 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online April 15, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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Bentele, M., 1991, Engine Revolutions: The Autobiography of Max Bentele, SAE, Warrendale, PA.
Meher-Homji, C. B., and Prisell, E., 1999, “Pioneering Turbojet Developments of Dr. Hans von Ohain—From the HeS1 to the HeS 011,” ASME Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Conference, Indianapolis, ASME Paper No: 99-GT-228; also in J. Eng. Gas Turbines and Power 122(2), p. 191 April 2000.
Constant, E. W. II, 1980, The Origins of the Turbojet Revolution, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 1980.
Meher-Homji, C. B., 2000, “The Historical Evolution of Turbomachinery,” Proceedings of the 29th Turbomachinery Symposium, Texas A&M University, Houston, TX, September 2000.
Meher-Homji, C. B., 1996, “The Development of the Junkers Jumo 004B—the World’s First Production Turbojet,” 1996 ASME Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Conference, Birmingham, UK, June 10–13, 1996. ASME Paper No. 96-GT-457. Also in ASME Transactions of Gas Turbines and Power 1194, October 1997.
“An Encounter Between the Jet Engine Inventors Sir Frank Whittle and Dr. Hans von Ohain,” 1978, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, History Office, Aeronautical Systems Division, US Air Force Systems Command.
Neville, L. E., and Silsbee, N. F., 1948, Jet Propulsion Progress, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1948.
Bentele, M., 1989, “Das Heinkel-Hirth Turbostrahltriebwerk HeS011—Vorganger, Characteristiche Merkmale Erkenntnisse,” Proceedings of Conference on 50 Years of Jet-Powered Flight, Sponsored by the DGLR (German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics), DGLR Publ. No. 89-05, October 26–27, 1989, Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany.
Hirth-Motoren GmbH Report, April 1944, VEW 1-139, “Schwingungsuntersuchungen an der HeS 11—Turbine V1 aund V6 mit Vollschaufeln,” dated Jan 31, 1944; Max Bentele Papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
Hirth-Motoren GmbH Report, April 1944B, VEW 1-140, “Untersuchung der Fussbefestigung von Topf und Falt-Schaufeln durch Kaltschleuderprufung,” dated April 16, 1944; Max Bentele Papers, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming.
“Design of the German 109-011 A-O Turbojet,” Aviation, September, 1946.
“Basic Technical Data on the 109-011 Jet Engine A-O Development Series,” U.S. Navy Department Bureau of Aeronautics, Third Edition, December 1944.
Bamford, L. P., and Robinson, S. T., 1945, “Turbine Engine Activity at Ernst Heinkel Atiengesellschaft Werk Hirth-Motoren, Stuttgart/Zuffenhausen,” Report by the Combined Intelligence Objectives Sub-committee dated May 1945.
Carter, J. L., 1945, Ernst Heinkel Jet Engines, Aeronautical Engine Laboratory [AEL], Naval Air Experimental Station, Bureau of Aeronautics, US Navy, June 1945.
Franz, A., 1979, The Development of the Jumo 004 Turbojet Engine, 40 Years of Jet Engine Progress, edited by Boyne, W. J. and Lopez, D. S., National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian, Washington, 1979.
Bentele, M., and Lowthian, C. S., 1952, “Thermal Shock Tests on Gas Turbine Materials,” Aircraft Engineering, February, 1952, pp. 32–38.
Bentele, M., and Laborde, J., 1972, Evolution of Small Turboshaft Engines, National SAE Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Conference, San Diego, CA, October 2–5, 1972, SAE Paper No. 720830.


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Frequency-speed diagram developed by Dr. Bentele for 60/40 admission turbocharger (1942)
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Danger level of excitation for different orders (60/40 admission turbine)
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Cracked turbocharger blade
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Folded turbine blade developed by Dr. Bentele. (Bentele, 1). The folding process is shown here. Two reinforcement strips increased the blade strength. The inside strip also provided proper distribution of cooling air. Blades would be pinned to the disk with an axial pin.
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Layout of the HeS 011 engine
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Compressor section of the HeS 011
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HeS 011 compressor map (Bentele, 1)
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Photo of the HeS 011 two-stage air-cooled turbine section
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“Bentele diagram” showing excitation and natural frequencies (Hirth-Motoren Report, January 1944 9)
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Ingenious method of developing air-cooled turbine blade starting with a circular plate 25 mm diameter (Hirth Motoren GmbH report, April 1944 10)
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Focke Wulf TA-183 with HeS 011 engine
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The Me-262 powered by two Junker Jumo 004B turbojets. Dr. Bentele was instrumental in resolving a major operational blade vibration problem with this engine.
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Complex blade root design for the BMW 003 engine that resulted in fatigue cracks and failures
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Photograph of three jet engine pioneers taken in 1987. Left to right Sir Frank Whittle, Dr. Hans von Ohain, and Dr. Max Bentele.



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