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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Influence of Pulsating Flow on Close-Coupled Catalyst Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Dimitrios N. Tsinoglou

Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece

Grigorios C. Koltsakis1

Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greecegreg@antiopi.meng.auth.gr

1

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 127(3), 676-682 (Jun 21, 2004) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1924402 History: Received August 27, 2003; Revised June 21, 2004

Close coupling of automotive three-way catalytic converters is becoming a common practice in order to reduce pollutant emissions during cold start. In such applications, the exhaust gas mass flow may fluctuate, as a function of crankshaft angle. A simplified one-dimensional channel model is developed, assuming that pollutant conversion in the catalyst is mass transfer limited. This model is applied to evaluate the effect of pulsations in catalyst performance, and assess the accuracy of the “quasi-steady state” approach usually involved in three-way catalytic converter models, when applied to simulate converters under pulsating flow.

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Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Comparison between HC conversion predicted by the simplified mass transfer limited model and the one predicted by the full model, including mass diffusion and chemical reactions

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Figure 2

Mass flow variation during an exhaust cycle for two pulsation patterns examined. The percentage denotes the percentage of exhaust gas mass emitted during the pulse phase. Average mass flow ṁ=0.02kg∕s, 1000rpm.

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Figure 6

HC conversion efficiency during an exhaust cycle as a function of Pulsation Index; effect of maximum pulse velocity (a) on fully transient conversion, (b) on quasi-steady state conversion. 4000rpm. The percentage denotes the percentage of exhaust gas mass emitted during the pulse phase. The peak velocity at the monolith inlet face during the pulsation is also included.

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Figure 3

Simulated HC conversion during a series of three exhaust cycles, assuming quasi-steady state simulation of pulsating flow and transient simulation of pulsating flow. (a) Active volume ratio AV=0.12. (b) AV=0.41. 4000rpm, η=0.23.

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Figure 4

Pulsation Index (PI) dependence from active catalyst volume and engine volumetric efficiency

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Figure 5

HC conversion efficiency during an exhaust cycle as a function of Pulsation Index; effect of engine speed and simulation method. Fifty percent of the exhaust gas mass emitted during the pulse phase.

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