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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Industrial and Cogeneration

Influence of High Fogging Systems on Gas Turbine Engine Operation and Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Giovanni Cataldi

 ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Brown Boveri Strasse 7, CH-5401 Baden, Switzerlandgiovanni.cataldi@power.alstom.com

Harald Güntner, Charles Matz, Tom McKay, Jürgen Hoffmann, Anton Nemet

 ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Brown Boveri Strasse 7, CH-5401 Baden, Switzerland

Stefan Lecheler

 Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, D-85577 Neubiberg, Germany

Jost Braun

 Kempten University of Applied Sciences, Bahnhofstrasse 61-63, D-87435 Kempten, Germany

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 128(1), 135-143 (Mar 01, 2004) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1926313 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004

High fogging is a power augmentation device where water is sprayed upstream of the compressor inlet with higher mass flow than that which would be needed to saturate the intake air. The main focus of this paper is on applications of high fogging on the ALSTOM gas turbine engines of the family GT24/GT26. Engine operation and performance are illustrated based on test results obtained from four different engines that have meanwhile accumulated more than 12,000 operating hours (OH) in commercial operation with ALSTOM’s AL Fog® high fogging system. The effect of internal cooling (water evaporation inside the compressor) is investigated considering actual compressor boundaries matched within the complete engine. Changes in the secondary air system (SAS) and corresponding movement of the engine operating line have been taken into account. Power output gain as high as 7.1% was experimentally demonstrated for injected water mass fraction (f=mH2Omair) equal to 1% and considering internal cooling effects only. Higher figures can be obtained for operation at low ambient relative humidity and partial evaporation upstream of the compressor inlet.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Architecture of the GT24/GT26 engine family

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Figure 2

High fogging system layout and engine air intake

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Figure 3

Limits of operation with high fogging

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Figure 4

Gross power output gain due to internal cooling, based on measurements with high fogging on the three commercial GT24/GT26 engines; all points corrected to ISO conditions

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Figure 5

Compressor characteristics and engine operating line considering variable SAS hardware

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Figure 6

Temperature variation along compressor considering variable SAS hardware

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Figure 7

Pressure variation along compressor considering variable SAS hardware

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Figure 8

Specific work of compression and inlet mass flow considering variable SAS hardware

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Figure 9

Effect on overall engine performance considering variable SAS hardware

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Figure 10

Compressor characteristics and engine operating line considering fixed SAS hardware

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Figure 11

Temperature variation along compressor considering fixed SAS hardware (same scale as Fig. 6)

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Figure 12

Pressure variation along compressor considering fixed SAS hardware (same scale as Fig. 7)

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Figure 13

Specific work of compression and inlet mass flow

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Figure 14

Effect on overall engine performance considering fixed SAS hardware

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