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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Manufacturing, Materials & Metallurgy

Properties, Weldability, and Applications of Modern Wrought Heat-Resistant Alloys for Aerospace and Power Generation Industries

[+] Author and Article Information
M. D. Rowe, V. R. Ishwar, D. L. Klarstrom

 Haynes International, Inc., 1020 W. Park Avenue, Kokomo, IN 46904-9013

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 128(2), 354-361 (Mar 01, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2056527 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004

Alloy selection and alloy design both require consideration of an array of material attributes, including in-service properties, weldability, and fabricability. Critical properties of modern heat-resistant alloys for gas turbine applications include high-temperature strength, thermal stability, oxidation resistance, and fatigue resistance. In this paper, the properties of 12 solid-solution-strengthened and six age-hardenable heat-resistant alloys are compared. Weldability is an important attribute and can be a major limiting factor in the use of certain alloys. Weldability test methods are discussed, and the resistance of alloys to solidification cracking and strain-age cracking is compared. The use of weldability testing in the development of modern heat-resistant alloys is discussed with several examples cited. Finally, alloy selection for gas turbine components is outlined, taking into account both alloy properties and fabricability.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Stress rupture properties of solid-solution-strengthened (bottom) and age-hardenable (top) alloys. Alloy 625 is included in both plots for reference.

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Figure 2

Thermal stability of solid-solution-strengthened alloys (room temperature tensile elongation after aging for 1000 hr at various temperatures)

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Figure 3

Comparison of low-cycle fatigue behavior at 427 °C for annealed material versus material aged at 760 °C for 1000 hr. (Total strain range of 1.0%, R=−1.0,F=0.33HZ).

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Figure 4

Strain-age cracking of a simulated repair weld in R-41 alloy

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Figure 5

Correlation between restrained circular patch test results and controlled heating rate test (CHRT) minimum elongation (8)

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Figure 6

Ranking of the susceptibility of commercial alloys to strain-age cracking by the controlled heating rate test (CHRT)

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Figure 7

Ranking of the susceptibility of commercial alloys to solidification cracking by the varestraint test

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Figure 8

Influence of boron content on solidification cracking resistance of 230 alloy, as indicated by the varestraint test

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Figure 9

Effect of boron and zirconium additions on the strain-age cracking resistance of 214 alloy, as measured by the controlled heating rate test

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