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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Quasidimensional Modeling of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Nitric Oxide, Soot, and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
Dohoy Jung

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  The University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2133dohoy@umich.edu

Dennis N. Assanis

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  The University of Michigan, 1231 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2133assanis@umich.edu

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 128(2), 388-396 (Jun 20, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2056027 History: Received February 09, 2004; Revised June 20, 2005

In this study we report the development and validation of phenomenological models for predicting direct injection (DI) diesel engine emissions, including nitric oxide (NO), soot, and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), using a full engine cycle simulation. The cycle simulation developed earlier by the authors (D. Jung and D. N. Assanis, 2001, SAE Transactions: Journal of Engines, 2001-01-1246) features a quasidimensional, multizone, spray combustion model to account for transient spray evolution, fuel–air mixing, ignition and combustion. The Zeldovich mechanism is used for predicting NO emissions. Soot formation and oxidation is calculated with a semiempirical, two-rate equation model. Unburned HC emissions models account for three major HC sources in DI diesel engines: (1) leaned-out fuel during the ignition delay, (2) fuel yielded by the sac volume and nozzle hole, and (3) overpenetrated fuel. The emissions models have been validated against experimental data obtained from representative heavy-duty DI diesel engines. It is shown that the models can predict the emissions with reasonable accuracy. Following validation, the usefulness of the cycle simulation as a practical design tool is demonstrated with a case study of the effect of the discharge coefficient of the injector nozzle on pollutant emissions.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The evolution of fuel parcels and zones in the multizone model

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Figure 2

A comparison of predicted and measured temporal spray tip penetration for a range of injection pressures

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Figure 3

Overpenetrated fuel spray

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Figure 4

Predicted and measured NO emissions over a range of loads at 2100rpm (multicylinder engine)

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Figure 5

Predicted and measured NO emissions over a range of speeds at 50% load (multicylinder engine)

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Figure 6

Predicted and measured NO emissions over a range of injection timings (single-cylinder engine)

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Figure 7

Predicted and measured soot emissions over a range of injection timings (single-cylinder engine)

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Figure 8

Predicted and measured HC emissions over a range of loads at 2100rpm (multicylinder engine)

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Figure 9

Predicted and measured HC emissions over a range of speeds at 50% load (multicylinder engine)

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Figure 10

Sources of HC emissions over a range of loads at 2100rpm (multicylinder engine)

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Figure 11

The effect of injector nozzle discharge coefficient; Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP)

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Figure 12

The effect of injector nozzle discharge coefficient; HC emissions

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Figure 13

The effect of injector nozzle discharge coefficient: NO-soot tradeoff curves

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Figure 14

The effect of injector nozzle discharge coefficient: Air entrainment

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Figure 15

The effect of injector nozzle discharge coefficient: Spray tip temperature

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Figure 16

The effect of injector nozzle discharge coefficient: Spray tail temperature

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