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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Internal Combustion Engines

Three-Dimensional Catalytic Regeneration Modeling of SiC Diesel Particulate Filters

[+] Author and Article Information
George Pontikakis

Mechanical Engineering Department,  University of Thessaly, 383 34 Volos, Greece

Anastassios Stamatelos1

Mechanical Engineering Department,  University of Thessaly, 383 34 Volos, Greecestam@uth.gr

1

To whom correspondence should be addressed.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 128(2), 421-433 (Aug 15, 2005) (13 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2130732 History: Received February 27, 2004; Revised August 15, 2005

Increasingly stringent diesel particulate emissions standards have reestablished international interest in diesel filters, whose first series application dates back to 1985. Modern diesel engine technology, with computerized engine management systems and advanced, common rail injection systems, needs to be fully exploited to support efficient and durable diesel filter systems with catalytic aids, as standard equipment in passenger cars. Efficient system and components’ optimization requires the use of mathematical models of diesel filter performance. The three-dimensional model for the regeneration of the diesel particulate filter presented in this paper has been developed as an engineering tool for the detailed design optimization of SiC diesel filters of modular structure. The 3-D modeling is achieved by interfacing an existing 1-D model to commercial finite element method software for the computation of the 3-D temperature field within the whole filter assembly, including the adhesive of the filter blocks, the insulation mat, and the metal canning. The 3-D model is applied to real-world component optimization studies of diesel filter systems.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Deceleration test with fuel additive. Initial SiC filter soot loading: (est.) 29g. Initial engine operation at 2500rpm—engine load 80Nm, filter inlet temperature 500°C. Step decrease at t=180s to 800rpm—load 20Nm.

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Figure 2

Computational cell for a wall flow diesel particulate filter, consisting of one inlet channel and four adjacent outlet channels

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Figure 3

Schematic representation of the cross section of a loaded wall flow channel assuming that the soot layer consists of four trapezoids

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Figure 4

Solid model of the filter. Different materials are designated by different shading.

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Figure 5

Finite element model of the filter, produced after meshing the solid model. (a) Front view. (b) Side view, with the central filter block and adhesive removed.

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Figure 6

ANSYS-CATWALL interfacing concept (flow diagram)

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Figure 7

Experimental layout. Engine and digitally controlled dynamometer installation are shown along with exhaust gas analyzers, main filter measurement lines, and data acquisition system.

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Figure 8

Low mass flow rate regeneration case: Evolution of exhaust temperature at filter inlet, filter exit wall temperature at three characteristic points (thermocouples 8, 9, 11, see Fig. 7), computed evolution of soot mass in the filter, measured and calculated filter backpressure

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Figure 9

Sequence of snapshot views of the predicted 3D temperature field of the SiC, in the interior of the filter, at the SiC—adhesive cement boundary (for the regeneration experiment of Fig. 8)

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Figure 10

Computed 3-D temperature gradient field in three characteristic time points (t=275, 290, and 330s) for the regeneration test case of Fig. 8

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Figure 11

Computed mass flow rate nonuniformity index during the first 500s of the simulation of the experiment of Fig. 8, for the four bricks of the filter

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Figure 12

Computed percentage of the flow entering each sector of the 3-D model at t=300s for the regeneration experiment of Fig. 8

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Figure 13

Test results of a medium flow rate regeneration scenario (52g∕s). Measured temperatures along a filter diameter near the channels exit together with filter backpressure are presented during regeneration at 4000rpm, 30Nm. Moderate filter loading (6g∕l) has been accumulated with the engine running at 3000rpm, 40Nm with 25ppm Ce-doped fuel.

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Figure 14

Computational simulation of the regeneration of Fig. 1 by the 1-D and the 3-D codes. Predictions of measured temperatures by thermocouples T/C10 (filter central area) and T/C11 (near filter periphery) are presented for comparison. Predicted soot mass is also shown.

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