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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Industrial & Cogeneration

Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines: Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential of International Locations

[+] Author and Article Information
Mustapha Chaker

Gas Turbine Division, Mee Industries, Inc., 204 West Pomona Avenue Monrovia, CA 91016

Cyrus B. Meher-Homji

Principal Engineer, Turbomachinery Group, Bechtel Corporation, 3000 Post Oak Blvd., MS 73, Houston, TX 77056-6503

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 128(4), 815-825 (Sep 18, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1707034 History: Received December 01, 2001; Revised March 01, 2002; Online September 18, 2006
Copyright © 2006 by ASME
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References

Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., Mee, T., and Nicolson, A., 2001, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Detailed Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-526.
McNeilly, D., 2000, “Application of Evaporative Coolers for Gas Turbine Power Plants,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-303.
Kitchen, B. J., and Ebeling, J. A., 1995, “QUALIFYING Combustion Turbines for Inlet Air Cooling Capacity Enhancement,” ASME Paper No. 95-GT-266.
Tawney, R., Pearson, C., and Brown, M, 2001, “Options to Maximize Power Output for Merchant Plants in Combined Cycle Applications,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-0409.
Jones and Jacobs, 2000, “Considerations for Combined Cycle Performance Enhancement Options,” GE Publication GER-4200.
Johnson, R. S., 1988, “The Theory and Operation of Evaporative Coolers for Industrial Gas Turbine Installations,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-41.
Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R., 1999, “Gas Turbine Power Augmentation by Fogging of Inlet Air,” Proceedings of the 28th Turbomachinery Symposium, Turbomachinery Laboratory, Texas A&M University, Sept., Houston, TX.
Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R., 2000, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Part A: Theory Psychrometrics and Fog Generation and Part B: Practical Considerations, Control and O&M Aspects,” ASME Paper Nos. 2000-GT-307; 2000-GT-308.
Bhargava, R., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2002, “Parametric Analysis of Existing Gas Turbines With Inlet Evaporative and Overspray Fogging,” ASME Paper No. 2002-GT-30560.
Ingistov, S., 2000, “Fog System Performance in Power Augmentation of Heavy Duty Power Generating Gas Turbines GE Frame 7EA,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-305.
Utamura, M., Ishikawa, A., Nishimura, Y., and Ando, N., 1996, “Economics of Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling System for Power Enhancement,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-515.
Ondryas, I. S., “Options in Gas Turbine Power Augmentation Using Inlet Air Chilling,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-250.
Van Der Linden, S., and Searles, D. E., 1996, “Inlet Conditioning Enhances Performance of Modern Combined Cycle Plants for Cost-Effective Power Generation,” ASME Paper No. 96-GT-298.
Guinn, G. R., 1993, “Evaluation of Combustion Gas Turbine Inlet Air Precooling for Time Varying Annual Climatic Conditions,” ASME Gogen-Turbo 1993, Bournemouth, UK, Sept. 21–23, IGTI, Atlanta, 8 .

Figures

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Representation of power boost possible by inlet cooling
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Typical high pressure fogging skid. The feed lines from the high pressure pumps to the inlet system can be seen here.
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High pressure fogging skid in operation for a heavy-duty gas turbine
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Typical fog plume from a single fog nozzle
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Correlation of WB and DB temperatures—averaged data
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Daily variation of dry bulb and wet bulb temperature
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Data for New Delhi, India. This provides the months of the year on the abscissa and the ECDH on the ordinate. The graph provided a month-by-month number of the ECDH, for a range of minimum wet bulb temperatures ranging from 18.3°C to 7.2°C. The “bimodal” pattern occurs here because after the hot months of April and May, temperatures drop due to the monsoons and then peak again in the months of September and October.
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Data for New Delhi, showing the duration of the day that the cooling potential is available. This graph shows that the cooling potential is predominantly clustered between 12:00–21:00 hours. Graphs such as this allow users to match evaporative cooling to peak demand needs.
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Data for New Delhi showing the sensitivity of ECDH to the minimum wet bulb temperature. For example, if the minimum WBT is set to 15°C, then the value of the ECDH is approximately 47,000. If a more aggressive minimum temperature of 10°C is chosen, then the ECDH increase to 56,000.
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Data for New Delhi, India. This shows the relationship between DBT and WBT. At a temperature approximately 40°C, a wet bulb depression of approximately 20°C is available.
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Data for New Delhi, India. ECDH for a variety of wet bulb depressions. For example, at a wet bulb depression of 5°C, and a minimum wet bulb temperature of 7.2°C. At low WBDs the minimum west bulb temperature become important, as expected.
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Data for New Delhi, India. Graph showing the time frames during a day when the cooling hour potential exists for a range of web bulb depressions. At a WBD of 4°C, approximately 1125 hours exist and the time distribution of these hours is shown.

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