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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Industrial & Cogeneration

Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines: Experimental and Analytical Investigations on Impaction Pin Fog Nozzle Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
Mustapha A. Chaker

Research and Development, Mee Industries, Inc., 204 West Pomona Avenue, Monrovia, CA 91016-4526

Cyrus B. Meher-Homji

Turbomachinery Group, Bechtel Corporation, 3000 Post Oak Blvd., MS 73, Houston, TX 77056-6503

Thomas Mee

Mee Industries, Inc., 204 West Pomona Avenue, Monrovia, CA 91016-4526

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 128(4), 826-839 (Sep 18, 2006) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1808429 History: Received October 01, 2002; Revised March 01, 2003; Online September 18, 2006
Copyright © 2006 by ASME
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References

Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R., III, 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines-Part A: Fog Droplet Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Practical Considerations,” ASME Paper No: 2002-GT-30562.
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R. III, 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines-Part B: Fog Droplet Sizing Analysis, Nozzle Types, Measurement and Testing,” ASME Paper No: 2002-GT-30563.
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R. III, 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines-Part C: Fog Behavior in Inlet Ducts, CFD Analysis and Wind Tunnel Experiments,” ASME Paper No: 2002-GT-30564.
Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R., 1999, “Gas Turbine Power Augmentation by Fogging of Inlet Air,” Proceedings of the 28th Turbomachinery Symposium, Houston, TX, September 1999.
Meher-Homji, C. B., and Mee, T. R., 2000, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines-Part A: Theory, Psychrometrics and Fog Generation and Part B: Practical Considerations, Control and O&M Aspects,” ASME Paper Nos: 2000-GT-0307 and 2000-GT-0308.
Kleinschmidt, R. V., 1946, “The Value of Wet Compression in Gas Turbine Cycles,” Annual Meeting of the ASME, December 2–6, 1946.
Wilcox, E. C., and Trout, A. M., 1951, “Analysis of Thrust Augmentation of Turbojet Engines by Water Injection at the Compressor Inlet Including Charts for Calculation Compression Processes With Water Injection,” NACA Report No: 1006.
Hill,  P. G., 1963, “Aerodynamic and Thermodynamic Effects of Coolant Ingestion on Axial Flow Compressors,” Aeronaut. Q., February, pp. 333–348.
Arsen’ev,  L. V., and Berkovich,  A. L., 1996, “The Parameters of Gas Turbine Units With Water Injected Into the Compressor,” Thermal Eng.,43, No. 6, pp. 461–465.
Nolan, J. P., and Twombly, V. J., 1990, “Gas Turbine Performance Improvement Direct Mixing Evaporative Cooling System,” ASME Paper No: 90-GT-368.
Utamura, M., Kuwahara, T., Murata, H., and Horii, N., 1999, “Effects of Intensive Evaporative Cooling on Performance Characteristics of Land-Based Gas Turbine,” Proceedings of the ASME International Joint Power Generation Conference, 1999.
Le Coz, J. F., 1998, “Comparison Of Different Drop Sizing Techniques On Direct Injection Gasoline Sprays,” 9th International Symposium On Application Of Laser Techniques To Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, 13–16 July, 1998.
Hinze,  J. O., 1955, “Fundamentals of the Hydrodynamic Mechanism of Splitting in Dispersion Process,” AIChE J., 1, No. 3, pp. 289–295.
York,  J. L., Stubbs,  H. F., and Tek,  M. R., 1953, “The Mechanism of Disintegration of Liquid Sheets,” Trans. ASME, 75, pp. 1279–1286.
Chaker, M., Meher-Homji, C. B., Mee, T., and Nicolson, A., 2001, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Detailed Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential in the USA,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-526.
Chaker, M., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2002, “Inlet Fogging of Gas Turbine Engines—Detailed Climatic Analysis of Gas Turbine Evaporative Cooling Potential for International Locations,” ASME Paper No: 2002-GT-30559.
Hoffmann, J., 2002, “Inlet Air Cooling Performance and Operation,” P.P. 222-227, T1-A-39, CEPSI 2002, Fukuoka, Japan.

Figures

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Experimental wind tunnel, 10.5 m (34.5 ft.) long and capable of velocities up to 25 m/s (4900 ft/min). Used to study droplet kinetics and thermodynamics under conditions similar to gas turbine inlet air ducts.
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Wind tunnel experimental setup
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Fog nozzles manifold used to create saturated air in the wind tunnel. The use of a fog droplet filter makes it possible to achieve an airflow with very close to 100% RH.
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Droplet size measurement in the wind tunnel
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Variation of the droplets size as a function of airflow velocity; measurement were taken at 30°C and 40% RH and at 7.6 cm from the nozzle orifice
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Effect of ambient humidity on droplet size at different axial distances from the nozzle at 138 bar (2000 psi) pressure
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Distorted spray plume caused by intentional bending of the impaction pin, 138 bar (2000 psi) operating pressure
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Droplet size at different rotational angles for the distorted-plume nozzle measured at 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) from the nozzle. Operating pressure is 138 bar (2000 psi).
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Droplet size at different rotational angles for the distorted-plume nozzle measured at 7.6 cm (3 in.) from the nozzle. Operating pressure is 138 bar (2000 psi).
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Cone angle, height, and width of the conical water sheet at the point of atomization
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Sprinkle effect from a standard Mee nozzle at operating pressures from 34 to 103 bar (500 to 1500 psi). The views are facing the impaction pin. Note how sprinkle lessens with increasing operating pressure.
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Standard Mee nozzle spray plumes at operating pressures from 138 to 207 bar (2000 to 3000 psi). Note the absence of larger droplets (sprinkle) at these operating pressures. One can also clearly see that the atomization process begins well before the conical water sheet contacts the support side of the impaction pin.
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Computational model for droplet evaporation
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Evaporation curves for single droplets showing residence time requirements, ending RH, and final droplet sizes for three ambient conditions
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Volume distributions showing total injected water, unevaporated water, and evaporated water for ambient conditions of 45°C (113°F) with 5% RH and one second residence time. The curves on the left (a, c, and e) show the volume frequency, and curves on the right (b, d, and f) provide cumulative volume.
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Volume distributions showing injected water, unevaporated water, and evaporated water for ambient conditions of 15°C (59°F) with 80% RH and one second residence time. The curves on the left (a, c, and e) show the volume frequency and curves on the right (b, d, and f) provide cumulative volume.
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Volume frequency of droplets from nozzles located in a low velocity region (filter house). Residence time is 1.2 s.
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Cumulative volume frequency of droplets from nozzles located in the low velocity region (filter house). Residence time is 1.2 s. Evaporation efficiency is 94.4%.
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Volume frequency of droplets for nozzle located in the high velocity region of the duct (after silencers). Residence time is 0.2 s.
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Cumulative volume frequency of droplets from nozzles located in the high velocity region (after the silencers). Residence time is 0.2 s. Evaporation efficiency is 77%.
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Summary curve showing evaporative efficiency for a range of residence times and Dv90 droplet sizes
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Correlation between theoretical model prediction and experimental data

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