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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Industrial and Cogeneration

# Gas Turbine Fogging Technology: A State-of-the-Art Review—Part I: Inlet Evaporative Fogging—Analytical and Experimental Aspects

[+] Author and Article Information
R. K. Bhargava

22515 Holly Lake Drive, Katy, TX 77450

C. B. Meher-Homji, M. A. Chaker

Bechtel Corporation, 3000 Post Oak Boulevard, Houston, TX 77056

M. Bianchi, F. Melino, A. Peretto

University of Bologna, DIEM, Facolta di Ingegneria, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna 40136, Italy

S. Ingistov

Watson Cogeneration Co./BP, 11850 S. Wilmington Avenue, P. O. Box 6203, Carson, CA 90749

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 129(2), 443-453 (Feb 01, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2364003 History: Received October 01, 2005; Revised February 01, 2006

## Abstract

Ambient temperature strongly influences gas turbine power output causing a reduction of around $0.50%$ to $0.90%$ for every $1°C$ of temperature rise. There is also a significant increase in the gas turbine heat rate as the ambient temperature rises, resulting in an increased operating cost. As the increase in power demand is usually coincident with high ambient temperature, power augmentation during the hot part of the day becomes important for independent power producers, cogenerators, and electric utilities. Evaporative and overspray fogging are simple, proven, and cost effective approaches for recovering lost gas turbine performance. A comprehensive review of the current understanding of the analytical, experimental, and practical aspects including climatic and psychrometric aspects of high-pressure inlet evaporative fogging technology is provided. A discussion of analytical and experimental results relating to droplets dynamics, factors affecting droplets size, and inlet duct configuration effects on inlet evaporative fogging is covered in this paper. Characteristics of commonly used fogging nozzles are also described and experimental findings presented.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Effect of ambient temperature on the performance of gas turbines (2)

Figure 2

Power boost versus amount of inlet air cooling (10)

Figure 3

Variations of site ambient condition in a day (11)

Figure 4

Psychrometrics of inlet fogging

Figure 5

(a) Swirl nozzle (b) impaction pin nozzle; plume characteristics at operating pressure of 138barg(2000psig): (c) swirl jet nozzle and (d) impaction pin nozzle (16)

Figure 6

Close-up picture of nozzle spray plumes operating at 138barg(15)

Figure 7

(a) Interaction of droplet to surrounding air condition (30°C and 20% RH)—Starting droplet size 20 microns; (b) Interaction of droplet to surrounding air condition (30°C and 20% RH)—starting droplet size 50 microns; (c) interaction of droplet to surrounding air condition (30°C and 60% RH)—starting droplet size 20 microns; (d) iinteraction of droplet to surrounding air condition (30°C and 60% RH)—starting droplet size 50 microns (16)

Figure 8

Variation of droplet size as a function of airflow velocity (measurements taken at 7.6cm from the nozzle orifice) (15)

Figure 9

Variation of droplets size in the center and at the edge of the plume as function of the applied pressure

Figure 10

Variation of droplets size in the center and at the edge of the plume as a function of the applied pressure

Figure 11

Effect on droplet size of distance between the nozzle tip and the measurement position for impaction pin nozzles (19)

Figure 12

Effect on droplets size of distance between the nozzle tip and the measurement position for swirl jet nozzles (19)

Figure 13

V-shaped duct configuration requiring a special V-shaped fog nozzle array

Figure 14

Nozzle array mounted in the inlet duct of Alstom GT24 gas turbine—a view looking into the intake cone (courtesy Caldwell Energy & Environmental, Inc.)

Figure 15

Response time of droplets to attain airstream velocity as a function of droplet size (16)

Figure 16

Optimization of nozzle manifold position based on droplets size as a function of airflow velocity, and evaporation efficiency as a function of residence time

Figure 17

(a), (b), and (c) Plume shape with nozzle orientation of a fog nozzle in the wind tunnel; airflow velocity is 4m∕s(800ft∕min), Operating pressure is 138barg(2000psig): (a) Co–flow; (b)90deg; (c) counter-flow

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