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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Industrial and Cogeneration

Gas Turbine Fogging Technology: A State-of-the-Art Review—Part III: Practical Considerations and Operational Experience

[+] Author and Article Information
R. K. Bhargava

22515 Holly Lake Drive, Katy, TX 77450

C. B. Meher-Homji, M. A. Chaker

 Bechtel Corporation, 3000 Post Oak Boulevard, Houston, TX 77056

M. Bianchi, F. Melino, A. Peretto

 University of Bologna, DIEM, Facolta di Ingegneria, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna 40136, Italy

S. Ingistov

 Watson Cogeneration Co./BP, 11850 S. Wilmington Avenue, P. O. Box 6203, Carson, CA 90749

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 129(2), 461-472 (Feb 01, 2006) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2364005 History: Received October 01, 2005; Revised February 01, 2006

The strong influence of ambient temperature on the output and heat rate of a gas turbine has popularized the application of inlet fogging and overspray for power augmentation. In this paper we focus on practical considerations for the implementation of the fogging technology such as water quality requirements, foreign object damage, gas turbine inlet icing, intake duct design, changes in compressor performance characteristics, and blade coating distress problems. It also provides a checklist for users and project developers to facilitate the design and implementation of fogging systems. In addition, in this paper we cover operational experience and review the work pursued by gas turbine OEMs in the field of fogging technology. A list of unresolved issues and ongoing research related to the fogging technology is also provided.

Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Fog nozzle manifold in a 80MW class heavy-duty gas turbine

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Figure 2

Typical high pressure nozzles in an intake duct (4)

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Figure 3

A simple chart to estimate water flow requirements for varying gas turbine airflow rates and temperature depressions ranging from 5°C to 15°C (applicable for evaporative fogging only)

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Figure 4

Special channel system for water drain (4)

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Figure 5

Proximity of the floor to the compressor inlet can at time cause vortex ingestion of pooled water (4)

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Figure 6

A schematic showing movement of engine operating line with respect to the surge line (5)

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Figure 7

Level of erosion on compressor blades of GE Frame 6B gas turbine with wet compression: First stage blade tip (left); First stage blade mid-height (Center); and First stage blade hub (Right) (Courtesy Caldwell Energy and Environmental, Inc.)

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Figure 8

Blade condition of first stage compressor blades of ALSTOM advanced heavy duty industrial gas turbine GT24 (Courtesy Caldwell Energy & Environmental, Inc.)

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Figure 9

A view of a corroded floor of intake duct (4)

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Figure 10

Under-frequency operation of gas turbine and its effect on output (Design frequency 50Hz)

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Figure 11

Special grounding brush utilized for overspray applications

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Figure 12

Pressure variation along compressor showing pressure buildup in the rear stages for a different amount of overspray: Top—Variable SAS system; and bottom—fixed SAS system (14)

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Figure 13

Change in pressure build with overspray up in a compressor (5)

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Figure 14

View of intake from viewing window installed in a plenum (4)

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Figure 15

Representation of a SPRINT LM6000 engine showing water injection between the LP and HP compressor (16)

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Figure 16

Map defined by ALSTOM indicating temperature and relative humidity where fogging and high fogging is permitted (21)

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Figure 17

Effects of inlet evaporative fogging on a 80MW class heavy-duty industrial gas turbine

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Figure 18

The first application of overspray on Frame 5 gas turbines (reproduced from the work of Nolan and Twombly (23))

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Figure 19

Experimental test results on GT24/GT26 gas turbines by ALSTOM (14)

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