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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Combustion and Fuel

# Experimental and Kinetic Modeling of Kerosene-Type Fuels at Gas Turbine Operating Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Gokulakrishnan1

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc., 8940 Old Annapolis Road, Suite L, Columbia, MD 21045gokul@csefire.com

G. Gaines, M. S. Klassen, R. J. Roby

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc., 8940 Old Annapolis Road, Suite L, Columbia, MD 21045

J. Currano2

Combustion Science & Engineering, Inc., 8940 Old Annapolis Road, Suite L, Columbia, MD 21045

1

Corresponding author.

2

Current address Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 129(3), 655-663 (May 31, 2006) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2436575 History: Received December 22, 2005; Revised May 31, 2006

## Abstract

Experimental and kinetic modeling of kerosene-type fuels is reported in the present work with special emphasis on the low-temperature oxidation phenomenon relevant to gas turbine premixing conditions. Experiments were performed in an atmospheric pressure, tubular flow reactor to measure ignition delay time of kerosene (fuel–oil No. 1) in order to study the premature autoignition of liquid fuels at gas turbine premixing conditions. The experimental results indicate that the ignition delay time decreases exponentially with the equivalence ratio at fuel-lean conditions. However, for very high equivalence ratios ($>$2), the ignition delay time approaches an asymptotic value. Equivalence ratio fluctuations in the premixer can create conditions conducive for autoignition of fuel in the premixer, as the gas turbines generally operate under lean conditions during premixed prevaporized combustion. Ignition delay time measurements of stoichiometric fuel–oil No. 1∕air mixture at 1 atm were comparable with that of kerosene type Jet-A fuel available in the literature. A detailed kerosene mechanism with approximately 1400 reactions of 550 species is developed using a surrogate mixture of $n$-decane, $n$-propylcyclohexane, $n$-propylbenzene, and decene to represent the major chemical constituents of kerosene, namely $n$-alkanes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics, and olefins, respectively. As the major portion of kerosene-type fuels consists of alkanes, which are relatively more reactive at low temperatures, a detailed kinetic mechanism is developed for $n$-decane oxidation including low temperature reaction kinetics. With the objective of achieving a more comprehensive kinetic model for $n$-decane, the mechanism is validated against target data for a wide range of experimental conditions available in the literature. The data include shock tube ignition delay time measurements, jet-stirred reactor reactivity profiles, and plug-flow reactor species time–history profiles. The kerosene model predictions agree fairly well with the ignition delay time measurements obtained in the present work as well as the data available in the literature for Jet A. The kerosene model was able to reproduce the low-temperature preignition reactivity profile of JP-8 obtained in a flow reactor at 12 atm. Also, the kerosene mechanism predicts the species reactivity profiles of Jet A-1 obtained in a jet-stirred reactor fairly well.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Ten reactions with the highest normalized sensitivity coefficients (NSC) with respect to n-decane for stoichiometric n-decane∕air mixture at 13atm. The initial temperature was 650K.

Figure 2

Ten reactions with the highest NSC with respect to n-decane for the conditions specified in Fig. 1 at 950K

Figure 3

Ten reactions with the highest NSC with respect to n-decane for the conditions specified in Fig. 1 at 1250K

Figure 4

Comparison of n-decane ignition delay time model predictions with shock tube measurements of Pfahl (12) at various experimental conditions as indicated. The symbols and the lines denote the experimental measurements and model predictions, respectively: (엯)—φ=0.5 at 13atm; (▴)—φ=1.0at13atm; (◻)—φ=1.0at50atm (φ—equivalence ratio).

Figure 5

Model comparison for n-decane reactivity species profile from jet-stirred reactor experiments of Dagaut (14) performed at 1.5 equivalence ratio and 1atm pressure. The jet-stirred reactor residence time was 70ms. The symbols and the lines denote the experimental measurements and model predictions, respectively: (●) CH2O; (▴) nC10H22, (∎) H2; (◆) O2, (∗) C2H4.

Figure 6

Model comparison for n-decane species time–history profile from plug-flow experiments of Zeppieri (21) performed at 1019K and 1atm. The symbols and the lines denote the experimental measurements and model predictions, respectively: (●) CO2; (∎) CO, (▴) nC10H22, (◆) O2, (∗) temperature.

Figure 7

Schematic of the experimental system

Figure 8

Schematic of the premixing section of the flow reactor

Figure 9

Typical experimental data recorded during the ignition delay time measurements: (solid line) solenoid valve signal; (dotted line) CH* emission signal detected by photomultiplier coupled with CH narrow band filter

Figure 10

Flow reactor ignition delay time measurements of stoichiometric n-heptane∕air mixtures compared with shock tube ignition delay time measurements as well as model predictions of Curran (25); (▴) present work, (∎) Horning (33), and (엯) Ciezki (34). The lines indicate the modeling results of Curran (25).

Figure 11

Kerosene and n-heptane ignition delay time as a function of equivalence ratios: (▴) kerosene at 900K and 17% O2; (●) n-heptane at 865K and 10% O2. Solid and dotted lines indicate the modeling results of present study and Curran (25), respectively.

Figure 12

Jet A∕air ignition delay time measurements of Freeman and Lefebvre and (31) (denoted by ◇) and Spadaccini and TeVelde (32) (denoted by 엯) at 1atm and 20atm pressures, respectively. The solid symbols (▴) indicate the ignition delay time of kerosene∕air obtained in the present study at 0.50–0.75 equivalence ratio. The lines denote the kerosene model predictions.

Figure 13

Model prediction for Jet A-1 reactivity species profile from jet-stirred reactor experiments of Dagaut (14) performed at 1atm and equivalence ratio of 2.0. The jet-stirred reactor residence time was 70ms. The symbols and the lines denote the experimental measurements and model predictions, respectively: (●) CH2O; (▴) CO; (∎) H2; (◆) O2.

Figure 14

Model prediction for JP-8 reactivity species profile from the high-pressure plug-flow reactor experiments of Agosta (13) performed at 0.3 equivalence ratio and 12atm pressure. The flow reactor residence time was 120ms. The symbols and the lines denote the experimental measurements and model predictions of CO, respectively.

## Errata

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