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TECHNICAL PAPERS: Gas Turbines: Heat Transfer

Physical Interpretation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Preswirl Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul Lewis

 University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UKp.r.lewis@bath.ac.uk

Mike Wilson

 University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UKm.wilson@bath.ac.uk

Gary Lock

 University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UKg.d.lock@bath.ac.uk

J. Michael Owen

 University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UKj.m.owen@bath.ac.uk

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 129(3), 769-777 (Jul 20, 2006) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2436572 History: Received July 19, 2006; Revised July 20, 2006

This paper compares heat transfer measurements from a preswirl rotor–stator experiment with three-dimensional (3D) steady-state results from a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The measured distribution of Nusselt number on the rotor surface was obtained from a scaled model of a gas turbine rotor–stator system, where the flow structure is representative of that found in an engine. Computations were carried out using a coupled multigrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver with a high Reynolds number k-εk-ω turbulence model. Previous work has identified three parameters governing heat transfer: rotational Reynolds number (Reϕ), preswirl ratio (βp), and the turbulent flow parameter (λT). For this study rotational Reynolds numbers are in the range 0.8×106<Reϕ<1.2×106. The turbulent flow parameter and preswirl ratios varied between 0.12<λT<0.38 and 0.5<βp<1.5, which are comparable to values that occur in industrial gas turbines. Two performance parameters have been calculated: the adiabatic effectiveness for the system, Θb,ad, and the discharge coefficient for the receiver holes, CD. The computations show that, although Θb,ad increases monotonically as βp increases, there is a critical value of βp at which CD is a maximum. At high coolant flow rates, computations have predicted peaks in heat transfer at the radius of the preswirl nozzles. These were discovered during earlier experiments and are associated with the impingement of the preswirl flow on the rotor disk. At lower flow rates, the heat transfer is controlled by boundary-layer effects. The Nusselt number on the rotating disk increases as either Reϕ or λT increases, and is axisymmetric except in the region of the receiver holes, where significant two-dimensional variations are observed. The computed velocity field is used to explain the heat transfer distributions observed in the experiments. The regions of peak heat transfer around the receiver holes are a consequence of the route taken by the flow. Two routes have been identified: “direct,” whereby flow forms a stream tube between the inlet and outlet; and “indirect,” whereby flow mixes with the rotating core of fluid.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of test section

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Figure 2

Schematic diagram of computational domain

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Figure 3

Typical radial distribution of y+ on the rotor for inertial and viscous regime computations

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Figure 4

Comparison of computed (lines) and measured (symbols) results for swirl ratio and pressure: Reϕ=0.8×106

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Figure 5

Variation of Θb,ad, β, and CD with βp for 0.8×106<Reϕ<1.2×106 and 0.12<λT<0.38: (a) comparison between computed and theoretical Θb,ad; (b) comparison between computed β1 and β2; and (c) comparison between computed and measured CD

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Figure 6

Radial variation of Nu Reϕ−0.8: (a) λT=0.12, βp=0.5; (b) λT=0.24, βp=1.0; and (c) λT=0.35, βp=1.5

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Figure 7

Experimental (left) and computational (right) Nusselt number contours, Reϕ=0.8×106: (a) βp=0.5, λT=0.13; (b) βp=1.0, λT=0.24; and (c) βp=1.5, λT=0.37

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Figure 8

Streamline plots for flow in the direct route between inlet and outlet

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Figure 9

Computed streamlines superimposed onto experimental heat transfer results: Reϕ=0.8×106, βp=1.5, λT=0.38

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