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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

Experimental Investigation of the Stability Mechanism and Emissions of a Lifted Swirl Nonpremixed Flame

[+] Author and Article Information
Paris A. Fokaides

Engler-Bunte-Institute, University of Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe, GermanyParis.Fokaides@vbt.uni-karlsruhe.de

Plamen Kasabov, Nikolaos Zarzalis

Engler-Bunte-Institute, University of Karlsruhe (TH), Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(1), 011508 (Jan 11, 2008) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2749279 History: Received May 02, 2007; Revised May 08, 2007; Published January 11, 2008

We report on the experimental investigation of a confined lifted swirl nonpremixed flame by applying a novel Airblast nozzle (Zarzalis, N., , 2005, Fuel Injection Apparatus, Patent No. DE 10 2005 022 772.4, EP 06 009 563.5). 3D-laser doppler anemometry, a nonintrusive, laser-based measurement technique, is adapted for the measurement of all three mean velocity components and of the six Reynolds stress components. The determination of the temperature and mixture field occurs by employing in-flame measurement techniques. Valuable information concerning the mixing procedure, the temperature distribution, the turbulence level, and the velocity field of the flame is provided. The results demonstrate that there is sufficient residence time in the precombustion area of the lifted flame in order to achieve spatial and temporal uniformity of the mixture, leading to a quasi-premixed state. It was also found that hot reaction products, carried upstream by an annular zone of reverse flow, react with fresh unburnt mixture in a re-ignition process. The determination of the flow pattern revealed the presence of an inner weak recirculation zone in the nozzle vicinity and a dominant external recirculation zone. The examination of the probability density function of the velocity measurements was also found to be a very useful tool in terms of the analysis of the turbulence structure of the flow. The bimodal distribution in the shear layer between the downstream flow and the recirculated gases yields the existence of large scale eddies. Finally, the significant reduced NOx emissions in the lean area were also shown by means of emission measurements for elevated pressure conditions.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Investigated Airblast atomizer (1)

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Figure 2

Schematic setup of the atmospheric combustion chamber

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Figure 3

Schematic setup of the pressurized combustion rig

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Figure 4

Lean blow-out limits against temperature of preheated air under atmospheric conditions for methane and Jet-A1 (3)

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Figure 5

Reactive (right) and isothermal flow (left): mass flow stream function Ψ and UV vector plot

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Figure 6

Reactive (up) and isothermal flow (down): turbulent kinetic energy k and UV vector plot

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Figure 7

Isothermal (left) and reactive flow (right): mean axial velocity U¯∕Uo

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Figure 8

Isothermal (left) and reactive flow (right): local density of axial momentum ρU2∕IO

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Figure 9

Isothermal (left) and reactive flow (right): shear stress U′V′¯∕Uo2 in nozzle vicinity

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Figure 10

Reactive flow: PDF evolution of axial velocity through shear layer for z∕Ro=5.6

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Figure 11

Reactive flow: local equivalence ratio with flame front and UV vector plot

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Figure 12

Flame illumination for the investigated conditions (aperture f∕5.6 exposure time 1∕30s)

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Figure 13

Isothermal (left) and reactive flow (right): methane concentration, % vol.

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Figure 14

Reactive flow: carbon dioxide concentration, % vol.

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Figure 15

Reactive flow: carbon monoxide concentration, % vol.

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Figure 16

Reactive flow: mean temperature (right) Trms (left) (in K) and combustion regimes (A,B,C)

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Figure 17

EINOx emissions (kg NOx /kg fuel) for lifted and attached flame against adiabatic flame

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