Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Controls, Diagnostics, and Instrumentation

Application of Silicon Carbide Photodiode Flame Temperature Sensors in an Active Combustion Pattern Factor Control System

[+] Author and Article Information
Carl A. Palmer

 Impact Technologies, LLC, 200 Canal View Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14623carl.palmer@impact-tek.com

Royce L. Abel

 Impact Technologies, LLC, 200 Canal View Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14623

Peter Sandvik

 GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY 12309

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 133(1), 011601 (Sep 13, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001942 History: Received June 19, 2009; Revised February 09, 2010; Published September 13, 2010; Online September 13, 2010

This paper describes the development and initial application studies for an active combustion pattern factor controller (APFC) for gas turbines. The system is based around the use of a novel silicon carbide optical ultraviolet dual diode flame temperature sensor (FTS) developed by General Electric Co. The APFC system determines combustion flame temperatures, validates the values, and integrates an assessment of signal and combustion hardware health to determine how to trim the fuel flow to individual fuel nozzles. Key aspects of the system include the following: determination of each flame’s bulk temperature using the FTS, assessment of the reliability of the flame temperature data and physical combustion hardware health through analysis of the high-frequency output of the sensor, validation of the flame temperature signal using a data-driven approach, fusion of sensor “health indices” into the APFC to alter the trim control signal based on the health (or “believability”) of each sensor and fuel nozzle/combustor, fault-tolerant peak/valley detection and control module that selects individual fuel valves to target for reducing pattern factor while simultaneously balancing the overall fuel flow. The authors demonstrated feasibility of the approach by performing simulations using a quasi-2D T700 turbine engine model. Tests were run on the simulated platform with no faults, simulated sensor faults, and on a system with underlying combustion hardware issues. The final APFC system would be applicable for aviation, naval, and land-based commercial gas turbines, and can be used in closed-loop control or adapted as an open-loop advisory/diagnostic system.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Overview of APFC system layout

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Figure 2

UV spectrometer output—UV light spectrum changes with temperature

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Figure 3

FTSim processed output

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Figure 4

T700 fuel nozzle and T4.5 thermocouple circumferential locations

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Figure 5

Numerical features processed from high-frequency data from filtered and unfiltered diodes

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Figure 6

Model based validation of FTS at steady state conditions based on correlations of high-frequency sensor response characteristics to flame temperature

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Figure 7

Neural network performance for predicting individual fuel nozzle combustion temperature from downstream thermocouple readings

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Figure 8

Flowchart for estimating fuel nozzle health

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Figure 9

Sensor health estimate fusion flowchart

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Figure 10

Flowchart for combustion temperature imbalance estimate compensation for sensor and hardware health

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Figure 11

How health gauges compensate t imbalance—healthy system with initial imbalance. Each trace represents a separate fuel nozzle

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Figure 12

Calculated health gauges in healthy system

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Figure 13

How health gauges compensate t imbalance—irregular high-frequency combustion (nozzle malfunction)

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Figure 14

Health gauges—irregular high-frequency combustion

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Figure 15

Effect of sensor accuracy (x axis) on eventual (achievable) pattern factor



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