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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Simulation of Diesel and Dual Fuel Engine Combustion

[+] Author and Article Information
Chengke Liu

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, Northwest Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada

G. A. Karim

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive, Northwest Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canadakarim@ucalgary.ca

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 131(1), 012804 (Nov 20, 2008) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2981175 History: Received February 19, 2008; Revised July 25, 2008; Published November 20, 2008

A 3D computational fluid dynamics model with a reduced detailed chemical kinetics of the combustion of diesel and methane fuels is developed while considering turbulence during combustion to simulate the mixture flow, formation, and combustion processes within diesel and diesel/methane dual fuel engines having swirl chambers. The combustion characteristics of the pilot injection into a small prechamber are also investigated. Modeled results were validated by a group of corresponding experimental data. The spatial and temporal distributions of the mixture temperature, pressure, and velocity under conditions with and without liquid fuel injection and combustion are compared. The effects of engine speed, injection timing, and the addition of carbon dioxide on the combustion process of dual fuel engines are investigated. It is found that in the absence of any fuel injection and combustion, the swirl center is initially formed at the bottom-left of the swirl chamber, and then moved up with continued compression in the top-right direction toward the highest point. The swirling motion within the swirl and main combustion chambers promotes the evaporation of the liquid pilot and the combustion processes of diesel and dual fuel engines. It was observed that an earlier autoignition can be obtained through injecting the pilot fuel into the small prechamber compared with the corresponding swirl chamber operation. It is to be shown that reduced engine emissions and improved thermal efficiency can be achieved by a two-stage homogenous charge compression ignition combustion.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

An example of the 3KC1 engine 3D mesh for calculation purposes (CA=−146°CA)

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Figure 2

A comparison of experimental results with the calculated ones for dual fuel operation under small pilot conditions (Pin=88.23 kPa, Tin=18.7°C, n=1800 rpm, Toil=85°C, mdiesel=0.00387 g/cycle, Tinj=−6.0°CA (input), and Dinj=10.0°CA)

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Figure 3

Velocity distribution (cm/s) at Y=0.01 plane and CA=−129.9°CA ATDC, where the initial swirl center is formed (CR = 23, Pin=80.0 kPa, Tin=292.5 K, n= 1800 rpm, and Twall=350 K)

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Figure 4

Velocity distribution (cm/s) at Z=7.65 plane under the motored condition (CR= 23, Pin=80.0 kPa, Tin=292.5 K, n=1800 rpm, and Twall=350 K)

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Figure 5

Variations of total kinetic energy/mass (Kt) and total turbulence kinetic energy/mass (Kt) with crank angle under the motored condition (CR= 23, Pin=80.0 kPa, Tin=292.5 K, n=1800 rpm, and Twall=350 K)

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Figure 6

Pressure distribution (bar) at Y=0.0 plane under the motored condition (CR= 23, Pin=80.0 kPa, Tin=292.5 K, n=1800 rpm, and Twall=350 K)

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Figure 7

A comparison of maximum and minimum cylinder pressures and temperatures under the motored condition (CR= 23, Pin=80.0 kPa, Tin=292.5 K, n=1800 rpm, and Twall=350 K)

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Figure 8

A comparison of the mean cylinder pressure and maximum and minimum cylinder temperature in the operations with and without pilot injection under the motored condition (CR= 23, Pin=80.0 kPa, Tin=292.5 K, n=1800 rpm, Twall=350 K, Tinj=−12.5°CA ATDC, Dinj=−12.5°CA, and minj=7.2 mg/2 cycle)

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Figure 9

Variations in calculated heat release rate and maximum and minimum values of cylinder pressure and temperature with crank angle for the 3KC1 diesel engines with a swirl chamber (CR= 23, n=1800 rpm, Pin=87.67 kPa, Tin=290 K, Twall=350 K, and EQdiesel=0.324)

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Figure 10

CH2O mass fraction distribution across Y=0 plane for the 3KC1 diesel engine with a swirl chamber (CR= 23, n=1800 rpm, Pin=87.67 kPa, Tin=290 K, EQdiesel=0.324, Tinj=−12.0°CA ATDC, and Dinj=12.0°CA)

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Figure 11

Cylinder temperature (K) distribution across Y=0.0 plane for the 3KC1 diesel engine with a swirl chamber (CR= 23, n=1800 rpm, Pin=87.67 kPa, Tin=290 K, EQdiesel=0.324, Tinj=−12.0°CA ATDC, and Dinj=12.0°CA)

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Figure 12

Effects of IT on the variations of mean cylinder pressure under small pilot conditions (Pin=88.23 kPa, Tin=18.7°C, n=1800 rpm, CR=23, Twall=350 K, mdiesel=0.00387 g/cycle, and Dinj=10.0°CA)

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Figure 13

Variations in maximum and minimum cylinder pressures and temperatures and heat release rates with crank angle for dual fuel engine operation (n=1800 rpm, Pin=87.67 kPa, Tin=290 K, EQdiesel=0.324, EQCH4=0.4Tinj=−12.0°CA ATDC, Dinj=12.0°CA, and Twall=450–500 K)

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Figure 14

Effects of engine speed on combustion in the dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber (Pin=88.23 kPa, Tin=18.7°C, n=1800 rpm, CR=23, Twall=425 K, mdiesel=0.00387 g/cycle, EQdiesel=0.19, EQCH4=0.25, Tinj=−6.0°CA, and Dinj=10.0°CA)

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Figure 15

Effects of adding CO2 on combustion in the dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber (Pin=88.23 kPa, Tin=18.7°C, n=1800 rpm, mdiesel=0.00387 g/cycle, EQdiesel=0.19, EQCH4=0.25, Tinj=−6.0°CA ATDC, Dinj=10.0°CA, and Twall=425 K)

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Figure 16

HCCI combustion achieved by early pilot fuel injection in the dual fuel engine with a swirl chamber (Pin=83.0 kPa, Tin=118.7°C, n=600 rpm, Twall=520 K, mdiesel=0.0022 g/cycle, EQdiesel=0.14, EQCH4=0.30, Tinj=−40.0°CA, and Dinj=10.0°CA)

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Figure 17

A 3D mesh of a diesel engine with a small prechamber (CA=−50.0°CA)

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Figure 18

A comparison of calculated mean cylinder pressures for diesel engines with a prechamber and a swirl chamber (CR=23, n=1800 rpm, Tinj=−12°CA, Dinj=12°CA, Pin=87.67 kPa, Tin=292.5 K, EQ=0.324 g/cycle or 0.00666 g/cycle)

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