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Research Papers: Internal Combustion Engines

Measurement and Simulation of Instantaneous Emissions of a Heavy Truck Diesel Engine During Transients

[+] Author and Article Information
Xavier Tauzia

Ecole Centrale de Nantes, LMF/EMCI, UMR CNRS 6598, BP 92101, 44321 Nantes Cedex3, Francexavier.tauzia@ec-nantes.fr

Pascal Chesse, Jean-François Hetet, Nicolas Thouvenel

Ecole Centrale de Nantes, LMF/EMCI, UMR CNRS 6598, BP 92101, 44321 Nantes Cedex3, France

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(1), 012807 (Jan 11, 2008) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2771254 History: Received August 28, 2006; Revised May 21, 2007; Published January 11, 2008

During the last decades, pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines used for transportation have become a major concern. Today, not only steady state emissions but also emissions during transients are regulated and have to be studied in order to be reduced. In this paper, we describe a new methodology developed to measure the instantaneous level of gaseous emissions from a internal combustion engine during transients, using an analyzer initially designed for steady state operation. Moreover, a new phenomenological thermodynamical combustion model is proposed in order to compute emissions during transients. The results of these two methods are compared on various transients. The measurement method seems to give good results (except for hydrocarbon (HC) measurements), as long as the speed and load variations are not too fast. Otherwise, the frequency of the analyzer which was used becomes the limiting factor. The new combustion heat release developed to simulate transients, coupled with an existing two-zone model for emission calculations, leads to satisfactory results for CO2 and O2 concentrations and NOx emissions. The agreement with measurements is good for smooth transients and seems promising for faster dynamics. The initial goal was reached, although some improvements are still necessary concerning HC measurements and the fastest transients. These results could be helpful when trying to reduce the amount of pollutant emissions at the exhaust during transients, directly or with after treatment devices.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Test configuration

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Figure 2

Steady state pollution measurements at 1500rpm and 82% throttle

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Figure 3

Characteristics of the measurement system

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Figure 4

Basis of the reconstruction technique

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Figure 5

Reconstruction scheme

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Figure 6

Reconstruction of a step different from the step used for identification-comparison of the signals

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Figure 7

Reconstruction of a HC step

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Figure 8

Comparison between total particulate emissions measured and calculated by integration of correlation 4

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Figure 9

Evolution of characteristic time of preparation τmix

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Figure 10

Comparison between calculated and reference in-cylinder pressures: Engine A, influence of engine boost pressure (a) and speed and load (b)

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Figure 11

Comparison between calculated and measured in-cylinder pressures: Engine B, influence of air/fuel ratio (a) and speed and load (b)

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Figure 12

Comparison of measured and calculated emissions for a 1s long increasing ramp (Test 1)

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Figure 13

Comparison of measured and calculated emissions for a 5s long increasing ramp (Test 2)

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Figure 14

Comparison of measured and calculated emissions for a 30s long increasing ramp (Test 3)

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Figure 15

Comparison of measured and calculated emissions for a 1000m dash from zero to full throttle (road load simulation)

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