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Research Papers: Power Engineering

A Coal-Fired Power Plant With Zero-Atmospheric Emissions

[+] Author and Article Information
Joel Martinez-Frias, J. Ray Smith

 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-644, Livermore, CA 94551

Salvador M. Aceves

 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-644, Livermore, CA 94551saceves@llnl.gov

Harry Brandt

 Clean Energy Systems, Inc., 11330 Sunco Drive, Suite A, Rancho Cordova, CA 95670hbrandt@cleanenergysystems.com

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 130(2), 023005 (Feb 21, 2008) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2771255 History: Received September 15, 2006; Revised May 29, 2007; Published February 21, 2008

This paper presents the thermodynamic and cost analysis of a coal-based zero-atmospheric emissions electric power plant. The approach involves an oxygen-blown coal gasification unit. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) is combusted with oxygen in a gas generator to produce the working fluid for the turbines. The combustion produces a gas mixture composed almost entirely of steam and carbon dioxide. These gases drive multiple turbines to produce electricity. The turbine discharge gases pass to a condenser where water is captured. A stream of carbon dioxide then results that can be used for enhanced oil recovery or for sequestration. The term zero emission steam technology is used to describe this technology. We present the analysis of a 400MW electric power plant. The power plant has a net thermal efficiency of 39%. This efficiency is based on the lower heating value of the coal, and includes the energy necessary for coal gasification, air separation, and for carbon dioxide separation and sequestration. This paper also presents an analysis of the cost of electricity and the cost of conditioning carbon dioxide for sequestration. Electricity cost is compared for three different gasification processes (Texaco, Shell, and Koppers-Totzek) and two types of coals (Illinois 6 and Wyodak). COE ranges from 5.95¢kWhto6.15¢kWh, indicating a 3.4% sensitivity to the gasification processes considered and the coal types used.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of the zero-atmospheric emissions 400MW coal power plant

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Figure 2

Syngas energy per ton of coal for three different gasification processes (Texaco, Shell, and Koppers-Totzek) and two types of coal (Illinois and Wyodak). The figure also shows efficiency (η) for each gasification process.

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Figure 3

Zero-atmospheric emissions power plant data for base case analysis. Notation: pressure, kPa (top); temperature, K (middle); mass flow, kg/s (lower). Input power=1,030MW LHV, thermal energy consumed in the gasification process=175MW. Electric power generated=550MW, electric parasitic power of pumps, compressors, and gasification plant=150MW. Net electric power=400.0MW. Net LHV thermal efficiency=39%.

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Figure 4

ZEST electricity cost for three different gasification processes (Texaco, Shell, and Koppers-Totzek) and two types of coal (Illinois 6 and Wyodak). COE for IGCC with and without CO2 sequestration is also included.

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Figure 5

COE as a function of capital cost for ZEST and other technologies for comparison

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