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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions

# Combustion Performance of Biodiesel and Diesel-Vegetable Oil Blends in a Simulated Gas Turbine Burner

[+] Author and Article Information
Heena V. Panchasara, Benjamin M. Simmons, Ajay K. Agrawal

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

Scott K. Spear, Daniel T. Daly

Alabama Institute for Manufacturing Excellence, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 131(3), 031503 (Feb 06, 2009) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2982137 History: Received March 30, 2008; Revised May 17, 2008; Published February 06, 2009

## Abstract

Recent increases in fuel costs, concerns for global warming, and limited supplies of fossil fuels have prompted wide spread research on renewable liquid biofuels produced domestically from agricultural feedstock. In this study, two types of biodiesels and vegetable oil (VO) are investigated as potential fuels for gas turbines to generate power. Biodiesels produced from VO and animal fat were considered in this study. The problems of high viscosity and poor volatility of VO (soybean oil) were addressed by using diesel-VO blends with up to 30% VO by volume. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and density, kinematic viscosity, surface tension, and water content measurements were used to characterize the fuel properties. The combustion performance of different fuels was compared experimentally in an atmospheric pressure burner with an air-assist injector and swirling primary air around it. For different fuels, the effect of the atomizing airflow rate on Sauter mean diameter was determined from a correlation for air-assist atomizers. Profiles of nitric oxides $(NOx)$ and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were obtained for different atomizing airflow rates, while the total airflow rate was kept constant. The results show that despite the compositional differences, the physical properties and emissions of the two biodiesel fuels are similar. Diesel-VO fuel blends resulted in slightly higher CO emissions compared with diesel, while the $NOx$ emissions correlated well with the flame temperature. The results show that the CO and $NOx$ emissions are determined mainly by fuel atomization and fuel/air mixing processes, and that the fuel composition effects are of secondary importance for fuels and operating conditions of the present study.

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## Figures

Figure 4

Schematic of the experimental setup; all dimensions are in cm

Figure 5

(a) Schematic of a swirler; (b) air assist injector schematic and picture

Figure 6

Spray visualization photographs

Figure 7

Spray cone angle versus atomizing airflow rate

Figure 8

(a) SMD versus ALR for Diesel, BD-1 and BD-2; and (b) SMD versus ALR for diesel, VO, and diesel-VO blends

Figure 9

Radial profiles of CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit plane for diesel and biodiesel fuels; (a) and (b), profiles for 15% AA; (c) and (d) profiles for 25% AA

Figure 10

Axial Profiles of CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit plane for diesel and biodiesel fuels; (a) and (b), profiles for 15% AA; (c) and (d), profiles for 25% AA

Figure 11

Radial Profiles of CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit plane for diesel and diesel-VO blends; (a) and (b), profiles for 15% AA; (c) and (d), profiles for 25% AA

Figure 12

Axial Profiles of CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit plane for diesel and diesel-VO blends; (a) and (b), profiles for 15% AA; (c) and (d), profiles for 25% AA

Figure 1

Results of thermogravimetric analysis

Figure 2

Kinematic viscosity of diesel and biodiesel fuels

Figure 3

Kinematic viscosity of diesel-VO blends

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