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Research Papers: Gas Turbines: Manufacturing, Materials, and Metallurgy

Advanced Braze Alloys for Fast Epitaxial High-Temperature Brazing of Single-Crystalline Nickel-Base Superalloys

[+] Author and Article Information
Britta Laux1

Fossil Power Generation Division, Siemens AG, 45473 Mülheim, Germanyb.laux@tu-bs.de

Sebastian Piegert

 Siemens AG, Energy Sector Products Gas Turbine Engineering, Materials Applications and Joining, 45473 Mülheim, Germanysebastian.piegert@siemens.com

Joachim Rösler

Institut für Werkstoffe, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germanyj.roesler@tu-bs.de

1

Corresponding author. Present address: Institut für Werkstoffe, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 8, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.

J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power 132(3), 032101 (Dec 02, 2009) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3159376 History: Received March 23, 2009; Revised April 14, 2009; Published December 02, 2009; Online December 02, 2009

High-temperature diffusion brazing is a very important technology for filling cracks in components from single-crystalline nickel-base superalloys as used in aircraft engines and stationary gas turbines: Alloys, which are similar to the base material, are enhanced by a fast diffusing melting-point depressant (MPD) like boron or silicon, which causes solidification by diffusing into the base material. Generally, epitaxial solidification of single-crystalline materials can be achieved by use of conventional braze alloys; however, very long hold times are necessary to provide a complete diffusion of the MPD out of the braze gap. If the temperature is lowered before diffusion is completed, brittle secondary phases precipitate, which serve as nucleation sites for stray grains and, therefore, lead to deteriorating mechanical properties. It was demonstrated in earlier works that nickel-manganese-based braze alloys are appropriate systems for the braze repair of particularly wide gaps in the range of more than 200μm, which allow a significant shortening of the required hold times. This is caused by the complete solubility of manganese in nickel: Epitaxial solidification can be controlled by cooling in addition to diffusion. In this work, it will be shown that the nickel-manganese-based systems can be enhanced by chromium and aluminum, which is with regard to high-temperature applications, a very important aspect. Furthermore, it will be demonstrated that silicon, which could be identified as appropriate secondary MPD in recent works, can be replaced by titanium as this element has additionally a γ stabilizing effect. Several braze alloys containing nickel, manganese, chromium, aluminum, and titanium will be presented. Previously, the influence of the above mentioned elements on the nickel-manganese-based systems will be visualized by thermodynamic simulations. Afterward, different compositions in combination with a heat treatment, which is typical for nickel-base superalloys, will be discussed: A microstructure, which is very similar to that within the base material, can be presented.

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Figures

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Figure 1

Quasibinary phase diagrams with fixed fractions of manganese and varying fractions of aluminum, chromium, and titanium. In (d) the amount of manganese, chromium, and aluminum is fixed, while the amount of titanium is varied (THERMOCALC , Version TCR). (a) Ni–20Mn+Al, (b) Ni–20Mn+Cr, (c) Ni-20Mn+Ti, and (d) Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al+Ti.

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Figure 2

Braze gap specimen (René N5, composition in wt %: Ni–7.5Co–7.0Cr–1.5Mo–5.0W–6.5Ta–6.2Al–3.0Re), gap width=0.3 mm or 300μm,length≈10mm

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Figure 3

Cutouts from the DSC heating curves for the chosen braze alloys

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Figure 4

Brazing cycles with following heat treatment

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Figure 5

SEM-images of the brazed gaps prepared with molybdic-acid etchant (in (b), (d), (f), and (h) the base material is always on the right side); (a) braze alloy No. 1: Ni–25Mn–5Cr–3Al–3Ti, gap center, δ=−1.131%; (b) braze alloy No. 1: Ni–25Mn–5Cr–3Al–3Ti, bonding zone; (c) braze alloy No. 2: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–3Ti, gap center, δ=−0.128%; (d) braze alloy No. 2: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–3Ti, bonding zone; (e) braze alloy No. 3: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–4Ti, gap center, δ=−0.005%; (f) braze alloy No. 3: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–4Ti, bonding zone; (g) braze alloy No. 4: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–6Ti, gap center, δ=0%; and (h) braze alloy No. 4: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–6Ti, bonding zone

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Figure 6

Alloy No. 1: Ni–25Mn–5Cr–3Al–3Ti, TB=1473 K; (a) SEM-image, (b) misorientation profile, relative to first point, and (c) ⟨001⟩ pole figure

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Figure 7

Alloy No. 2: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–3Ti, TB=1533 K; (a) SEM-image, (b) misorientation profile, relative to first point, and (c) ⟨001⟩ pole figure

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Figure 8

Alloy No. 3: Ni–20Mn–5Cr–3Al–4Ti, TB=1533 K; (a) SEM-image, (b) misorientation profile, relative to first point, and (c) ⟨001⟩ pole figure

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